Структурно-функциональные основы хронических нарушений сознания

M. A. Piradov1, N. A. Suponeva1, D. V. Sergeev1, A. V. Chervyakov1, Yu. V. Ryabinkina1, D. O. Sinitsyn1, A. G. Poydasheva1, E. I. Kremneva1, S. N. Morozova1, E. G. Iazeva1, L. A. Legostaeva1
1ФГБНУ "Научный центр неврологии", Москва, Россия

Аннотация


Проблема хронических нарушений сознания (ХНС) становится всё более актуальной в связи с постоянным увеличением количества пациентов данной категории и фактическим отсутствием методов эффективной реабилитации. Благодаря современным диагностическим технологиям к настоящему времени накоплено большое количество сведений о патофизиологических механизмах, лежащих в основе формирования ХНС, среди которых первоочередную роль играет структурное и функциональное разобщение элементов сетей головного мозга, обеспечивающих поступление и обработку информации. В зависимости от модальности исследования, это может выражаться, например, в формировании медленноволновой активности на ЭЭГ, снижении метаболизма по данным ПЭТ, нарушениях коннективности по данным структурной и функциональной МРТ, появлении низкодифференцированных/ дезинтегрированных ответов нейронов на внешние стимулы при изучении вызванных потенциалов, индуцированных транскраниальной магнитной стимуляцией. Детальное исследование механизмов нарушения сознания лежит в основе разработки подходов к диагностике и лечению ХНС, а также приближает нас к пониманию природы сознания в целом.

 

Литература

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Ключевые слова

хронические нарушения сознания; патофизиология; ЭЭГ; функциональная МРТ; транскраниальная магнитная стимуляция; коннективность

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Литература

Rosenblath W. Uber einen bemerkenswerten Fall von Himerschutterrun (aus dem Landkrankenshaus Kassel). Arch Klin Med 1899; 64: 406–424.

Kretschmer E. Das apallische Syndrom. Z ges Neurol Psychiat 1940; 169: 576–579. DOI:10.1007/BF02871384.

Jennett B., Plum F. Persistent vegetative state after brain damage. A syndrome in search of a name. Lancet 1972; 1(7753): 734-7. PMID: 4111204.

Giacino J.T., Ashwal S., Childs N. et al. The minimally conscious state: definition and diagnostic criteria. Neurology 2002; 58: 349-353. PMID: 11839831.

Laureys S., Celesia G.G., Cohadon F. et al. Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome: A new name for the vegetative state or apallic syndrome. BMC Med 2010;8: 68. DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-8-68. PMID: 21040571.

Giacino G.T., Katz D.I., Schiff N.D. et al. Practice guideline update recommendations summary: Disorders of consciousness. Neurology 2018; 91(10):450-460. DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000005926. PMID: 30089618.

Giacino G.T., Katz D.I., Schiff N.D. et al. Comprehensive systematic review update summary: Disorders of consciousness. Neurology 2018; 91(10): 461-470. DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000005928. PMID: 30089617.

Bruno M.A., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Thibaut A. et al. From unresponsive wakefulness to minimally conscious PLUS and functional locked-in syndromes: recent advances in our understanding of disorders of consciousness. J Neurol 2011; 258: 1373-1384. DOI:10.1007/s00415-011-6114-x. PMID: 21674197.

Bruno M.A., Schnakers C., Boly M. et al. Subcategorizing the minimally conscious state based on cerebral metabolism PET studies. In: 19th Meeting of the European Neurological Society 2009.

Edelman G.M., Tononi G. A Universe of Consciousness: How Matter Becomes Imagination. New York.: Basic Books, 2003. 274 p.

Edlow B.L.; Haynes, R.L., Takahashi E. et al. Disconnection of the Ascending Arousal System in Traumatic Coma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2013; 72: 505–523. DOI:10.1097/NEN.0b013e3182945bf6. PMID: 23656993.

Sherer M., Nakase-Thompson R., Yablon S.A. et al. Multidimensional assessment of acute confusion after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86(5): 896–904. DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.09.029. PMID: 1589533.

Eapen B.C., Georgekutty J., Subbarao B. et al. Disorders of Consciousness. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2017; 28(2): 245–258. DOI: 10.1016/j.pmr.2016.12.003. PMID: 28390511.

Laureys S. The neural correlate of (un)awareness: lessons from the vegetative state. Trends Cogn Sci 2005; 9: 556-559. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2005.10.010PMID: 16271507.

Schnakers C., Laureys S. (Eds.) Coma and Disorders of Consciousness, 2nd edition. Springer eBooks, 2018. 276 p.

Adams J.H., Graham D.I., Jennett B. The neuropathology of the vegetative state after an acute brain insult. Brain 2000; 123: 1327–1338. PMID: 10869046.

Giacino J., Malone R. The vegetative and minimally conscious states. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 90 (3rd series). Disorders of consciousness. G.B. Young, E.F. Wijdicks, (Eds). 773-786.

Dougherty J.H., Rawlinson D.G., Levy D.E. et al. Hypoxicischemic brain injury and the vegetative state: clinical and neuropathologic correlation. Neurology 1981; 31: 991–997. PMID: 7196525.

Kinney H.C., Korein J., Panigrahy A. et al. Neuropathological findings in the brain of Karen Ann Quinlan: the role of the thalamus in the persistent vegetative state. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1469–1475. DOI: 10.1056/ NEJM199405263302101. PMID: 8164698.

Rosenblum W.I. Immediate, irreversible, posttraumatic coma: a review indicating that bilateral brainstem injury rather than widespread hemispheric damage is essential for its production. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2015, 274, 198–202. DOI: 10.1097/NEN.0000000000000170. PMID: 25668566.

Lutkenhoff E.S., Chiang J., Tshibanda L. et al. Thalamic and extrathalamic mechanisms of consciousness after severe brain injury. Ann Neurol 2015; 78(1):68-76. DOI: 10.1002/ana.24423. PMID: 25893530.

Schnakers C., Vanhaudenhuyse A., Giacino J. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment. BMC Neurol 2009; 9(1): 35. DOI:10.1186/1471-2377-9-35. PMID: 19622138.

Legostayeva L. A., Mochalova E.G., Suponeva N.A. et al. [The complications of the clinical diagnosis of chronic impairment of consciousness and recommendations for the clinical and instrumental assessment of patients after they leave the coma].Anesteziologiya i reanimatologiya 2017; 6 (62): 449-456. (In Russ.).

Fernandez-Espejo D., Junque C., Bernabeu M. et al. Reductions of thalamic volume and regional shape changes in the vegetative and the minimally conscious states. J Neurotrauma 2010; 27: 1187–1193. DOI: 10.1089/neu.2010.1297.PMID: 20392136.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25692/ACEN.2018.5.1