1. Types of Articles
Annals of clinical and experimental neurology publishes articles on different aspects of diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, different topics in neuroscience, historical neurology and neuroscience, as well as on related medical specialities.
Accepted types of articles:
1. Original papers. Results of researches. Accepted papers present the data of researches in clinical neurology, neuroscience.
2. Technology reviews. Reviews describing novel methods and technologies and their application in clinical neurology and neuroscience.
3. Reviews. Reviews of current advances in Clinical Neurology and Neuroscience.
4. Clinical cases. Descriptions of rare clinical cases or cases that represent a diagnostic challenge providing analysis and discussion of the presented data.
5. Historical neurology and neuroscience. Biographies of exceptional figures in clinical neurology and neuroscience.
2. General information
2.1. Publication Ethics. Annals of clinical and experimental neurology adheres to the Publication Ethics and ethical standards for publication in the journal, which are listed Here. Before sending the manuscript all authors are encouraged to review the publication ethics section.
2.2 Review. All articles submitted to the editorial office, pass the review procedure. The reviewing procedure is described Here.
The Editorial Board reserves the right to shorten and edit articles.
2.3. Publication fees. Publication of articles in the journal is free. Author’s copy of the journal is not provided.
2.4. Plagiarism. Only materials that have never been published or have been submitted for publication elsewhere can be accepted for printing. Submitted manuscripts are checked for plagiarism.
2.5. Copyright. Authors sign an Agreement on the transfer of the exclusive license for the text to the Research Center of Neurology, which allows to publish articles in the journal. The license is valid in all countries for the duration of the copyright.
2.6 Conflicts of Interest. Authors are required to submit information about potential conflicts of interest, including financial, personal and other relationships with other persons or organizations that could potentially lead to the distortion of data presented in the manuscript, for 3 years prior to the date of submission. These conflicts of interest, as well as a statement of their absence should be provided in the relevant section of the manuscript and the conflicts of interest form.
2.7. Information on funding sources. If reliable, indicate funding sources. In the absence of funding sources, the authors need to state this in the relevant section of the manuscript and the conflicts of interest form.
Description of the history of development of leading departments. Нistory of important events in neurology and neuroscience.
3. Authorship requirements
Authorship requirements were composed in accordance with the recommendations for medical journal editors of the International Committee (ICMJE). All those qualifying for authorship should meet all four of the following criteria:
1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work;
2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
3. Final approval of the version to be published;
4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.”
The authors should be identified before submitting the manuscript. All those who participated in the preparation of work (technicians, etc.), but do not meet authorship requirements, may be listed in the “acknowledgements”. One author responsible for contact with the editorial board should be indicated at the time of submission. This author should be available for contact during the peer-review procedure, as well as after the publication of the article. The author responsible for contact with the editorial board should be able to provide answers, comments and additional information if required.
4. Submitting a manuscript
A set of documents to be sent to the Editor of the Journal
- The electronic version of the manuscript.
- The author’s agreement .
- A cover letter.
- The conflicts of interest form
The manuscript can be submitted through:
- The electronic submission form at the journal website (will be available soon)
- E-mail, accompanied with scans of required forms.
5. Guidelines for authors
The article should be printed using a 12-point font size, double-spaced on a A4 paper dimensions with margins of 2.5 cm on all sides of the text.
All units must be specified in the SI system.
All drugs should be given in the form of International Nonproprietary Names (INN).
Abbreviations which are not widely accepted, must be deciphered at their first occurrence in text.
In the original article provides information on the approval of the research ethics committee.
5.2.1. 1) The title of the article – short and informative;
2) the names of authors;
3) name of the institution(s) where the work was performed affiliated with author’s names;
4) Complete mailing address, zip code, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address of the сorresponding author;
5) abbreviated title to be placed on top of the journal pages
5.2.2. Abstract and keywords
The abstract is the most important section of the article. The Abstract should reflect the content of the article and briefly describe the main objectives of the study, explain how the study was conducted without methodological details, summarize the most important results including key quantitative data and indicating their statistical significance and their importance, what conclusions can be drawn.
References and abbreviations, which are not widely accepted should be avoided. If necessary this type of abbreviations should be decrypted.
For original articles a structured format of abstract is required. The abstract should include following sections: introduction, objective, materials and methods, results, conclusion. The abstract should be 200-250 words.
3-6 keywords should be provided. The keywords should reflect the main content of the article and facilitate the search of articles when using of information search systems.
The Abstract and key words should be presented in Russian and English. The English version of the abstract should not be a direct translation of the Russian version. As the Russian version, the English version should give a brief, structured, lucid description of the study. For the English keywords it is recommended to use a dictionary of medical terms Medline (MeSH).
Introduction. Arterial hypertension (AH) is the major modified risk factor for brain injury. Clarification of the brain changes and the mechanisms of their development during the asymptomatic stage will ensure better results in the prevention of AH complications.
Objective. The study purpose was to evaluate specific changes in the brain MRI picture, associated with AH of varying severity.
Material and methods. The study involved 82 patients with newly diagnosed asymptomatic AH, aged 45−59 years. The patients underwent MRI of the brain (T1 and T2 weighted images, FLAIR, diffusion weighted imaging with calculation of an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map). We evaluated the localization and severity of white matter hyperintensity (WMH), lacunar infarcts, and dilated perivascular spaces as well as the white matter microstructure based on ADC in a visually intact white matter in areas of its potential vulnerability.
Results. The earliest and most typical change is the formation of hyperintensity lesions in the juxtacortical areas of the frontal lobes (53%, 76% and 100% of patients with mild , moderate and severe AH, respectively) (p<0,012). AH worsening is associated with an increase in the number of hyperintensity lesions from the frontal to occipital areas of the white brain matter and from the surface to deep brain regions as well as microstructural changes in the intact white matter in potential vulnerability areas.
Conclusion. The observed high correlations between WMH and dilated semioval perivascular spaces and increased diffusion in the intact white matter as well as the absence of similar correlations for lacunar infarcts suggest that the pathophysiological basis of early brain changes in AH is increased vascular permeability, but not ischemia. The factors of a high risk of clinical symptoms include lesion extension to the posterior brain structures, multiple foci of hyperintensity in the periventricular white matter of the frontal lobes, and an increasing number of lacunar infarcts. These findings are significant for evaluating potential risk of clinical symptoms and for understanding the mechanisms of early brain injury in AH.
Reviews, Technology reviews, Historical neurology and neuroscience
James Parkinson, a physician from London, described the «shaking palsy» now known as Parkinson’s disease (PD) in his classic essay in 1817. Parkinson noted tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and stooped posture as the key motor features of this condition but also drew attention to sleep dysfunction, delirium, dementia, and dysautonomia, now known to be non-motor symptoms (NMS) of PD. Inspite of their importance, NMS in PD still remain under-recognised and poorly studied. Description of neuropathological correlates of NMS, as well as the development of comprehensive tools for their assessment in the early 2000’s, such as the NMS questionnaire (NMSQuest) and scale (NMSS), helped to establish the importance of NMS in PD and their crucial link with quality of life. In many countries, NMS evaluation in PD is now a part of the good clinical practice standards. Studies of the integral role of NMS in PD clinical structure and natural history of PD led to the concept of PD as a complex combination of motor and non-motor manifestations with a long prodromal phase dominated by a number of NMS. The prodromal phase of PD is a major current research topic: NMS-associated biomarkers may help to identify subjects who are at risk of developing motor-phase PD and, potentially, are candidates for neuroprotective therapies. NMS burden grading with cut off values, which can be used as outcome measure in clinical trials in patients with PD, have been validated. The complex multi-neurotransmitter dysfunction of PD has been reported to manifest clinically as difeferent non-motor subtypes. Recognition of such subtypes may lead to the emergence of personalized and precision medicine approaches in PD.
This is a description of a clinical case of levamisole-induced leukoencephalopathy. A few hours after the single intake of the immunomodulator levamisole (150 mg), the patient developed following cerebral symptoms: febrile fever, dizziness, frequent urination, impaired color vision, divergent strabismus, unsteady gait, severe weakness, increased drowsiness, retardation, delusions. The symptoms progressed towards a full clinical picture for about 2 months. The course of the disease was of a wavy nature: left-sided hemiparesis and the left facial nerve palsy were present at the beginning, with later inversion of symptoms represented by the right-sided hemiparesis and the right facial nerve palsy combined with dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple foci of demyelination in both hemispheres of the brain that regressed after corticosteroid therapy administration. No abnormalities of the cerebrospinal fluid were detected. No pathology of the fundus was evident. The evoked potentials of the brainstem (auditory and visual) and somatosensory evoked potentials from the hands and feet were within normal limits. Plasmapheresis (3 procedures, each 2 liter, with intravenous administration of 1 g of solu-medrol after each session) was performed in the acute phase, which benefited the decrease in severity of the neurological symptoms. Vascular and metabolic therapy was performed afterwards, with the regression of the neurologic symptoms. No specific therapy was administered after the woman was discharged from the hospital. For a 10-year survey after the acute demyelinating process outbreak there’s a complete regression of neurologic symptoms and positive dynamics of the patient’s MRI. The woman is fully adapted physically, emotionally and socially.
5.3. The article
The average volume of articles should be2000-4000 words. The number of references should not exceed 50. The number of images – not more than 8.
Original papers should include following sections: 1) Metadata 2) Introduction; 3) Materials and methods; 4) Results; 5) Discussion; 6) Information on conflict of interest and funding source; 7) Aknowledgements; 9) References 10) Information about the authors
The abstract of an original paper must repeat the structure of the article and should include following sections: introduction, objective, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusion.
Introduction. The objectives and importance of the study should be presented. Current information on the research topic should be summarized with reference to the most relevant and recent publications as possible.
Materials and methods. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of patients, characteristics of the experimental materials should be listed. All the research methods, including statistical methods of data processing should be described. Description of the methods should enable to reproduce them. The manufacturer and the country of the equipment and new drugs used in the study should be cited. Compliance with ethical standards should be stated.
Results. Results should be presented in a logical order in the text, tables, and figures. The text should not repeat all the data from the tables and figures, it is necessary to mention only the most important ones. The figures should not duplicate data given in the tables. The place in the text where a picture should be placed may be marked with a square with its number.
Discussion. This section should summarize obtained results and highlight new and important aspects of the study in comparison with the data obtained by other authors. Do not repeat the information that was already provided in the “Introduction” section or duplicate the details of the “Results” section. If appropriate some practical recommendations may be suggested. A brief conclusion may be present.
Reviews, technology reviews, historical neurology and neuroscience
The average volume of the article should be 1000-4000 characters, the number of references can be up to 150. The presence of illustrative material is welcome. The article can be divided in subsections.
Structure of the article:
The manuscript should include following sections: 1) Metadata 2) Review text (possible division into subsections); 3) Information about the conflict of interest and funding sources; 4) Aknowledgements; 5) References 6) Information about the authors
The average volume of the article should be 1500-3000 characters. The number of references in the bibliography – not more than 50. Illustrative material presence is welcome.
Structure of the article:
The manuscript should include following sections:: 1) Metadata 2) Introduction 3) Description of the cases; 4) Discussion 5) Information about the conflict of interest and funding sources; 6) Aknowledgements; 7) References 8) Information about the authors.
Introduction – The importance of the case reports, summarizes the state of the question, with reference to the most relevant and recent publications as possible.
Description of cases – Detailed description of medical history, clinical presentation, laboratory data and instrumental methods, applied therapeutic approaches should be described. 1-3 patients may be presented.
Discussion. The most important aspects of clinical case descriptions should be highlighted. Comparison with other similar clinical cases reported should be performed. Do not repeat the information that was already provided in the “Introduction” section. If appropriate some practical recommendations may be suggested. A brief conclusion may be present.
Figures (images, diagrams, photographs) are submitted in two copies. Images must be presented with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (1:1). Three-dimensional images are not accepted.
Each Picture should be presented in a separate file of an acceptable format.
For each picture its name and legend, explaining parts of the figure, the symbols, arrows and other items that may be unclear should be presented. Figure titles and legends should be printed on a separate page, with two line spacing and numbered corresponding to the numbers of Pictures. In microphotographs coloring (if necessary) and the magnification should be indicated.
Acceptable formats: JPG, PNG
Unacceptable formats: GIF, TIFF, BMP, PICT, WPG.
Reprinted images may be accepted only if a special permission is obtained.
Tables should be included as a part of the manuscript document file and numbered in the order of their mention in the text. The number and name of the table should be given above the table. Each column in the table must have a short title (if necessary abbreviations may be used). All explanations, including decifering of abbreviations should be placed in the legend. It is desirable to specify the statistical methods and significances of the data provided in the tables.
5.6. Mathematical formulas
Mathematical formulas are presented in the text. The variables are presented in italics. If the division sign is present in the formula it is placed as a sloping rather than a horizontal line.
5.7. Conflict of interest
In case of absence of conflicts of interest it is stated that “there is no conflict of interest.” In other cases, a description of existing and potential conflicts of interest is provided.
5.8. Funding sources
A lists of funding sources of the research is presented. If there are no funding sources it is claimed.
Aknowledgements is the section in which authors may express appreciation to others who have contributed to the study but did not meet authorship criteria, and organizations that participated in the study. Maximum length 100 words.
References should be printed on a separate sheet or sheets with two line spacing, each source with a new line under the serial number. All studies should be listed in the order they appear in the text. When mentioned in the text authors’ names should be preceded by the initials (names of foreign authors in this case are given in the original transcription). Bibliographic references should be cited in numerical order according to their position in the text in square brackets.
It is not recommended to include thesis in the reference list because it may be a challenge to access the full text.
The information in the references should be placed in following order: a) Author (s); b) Title; c) journal(book), year of publication, volume, №, pages; g) DOI and PMID numbers, if available.
When the group of authors is up to four all of the authors are mentioned (with the initials after surnames). If there are more authors the names of the first three are provided with “et al.” after. If authors are presented by the editors of the book (“Ed.”) should be put in after the name of the last of them.
In book references the city, where it was published, followed by the publisher name, and the year of publication should be presented after the title. In references to book chapters the authors and the title of the chapter is first mentioned, after that put “In:’ and the name (s) of the author (s) or editor (s), the title and imprint of the book.
In journal article references the abbreviated journal name, year of publication, volume and issue, pages are listed after the title of the article.
For each article, an additional References list hould be created, in which all russian references will be given in the Roman alphabet. English references remain unchanged.
Samples of references
Abstracts of conferences:
- Gekht A.B., Popov G.R. [Medical and social aspects of Parkinsons disease. Guidelines for doctors]. In: Illarioshkin S.N., Levin O.S., eds. Materialy III Natsional’nogo kongressa po bolezni Parkinsona i rasstroystvam dvizheniy [Proceedings of the III National Congress of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders]. Moscow; 2014: 221-7. (in Russ.)
- Веделаев В.Р., Петров Н.Ю., Ростиславский Н.А. и др. Клинические и биохимические особенности миодистрофии Дюшенна. В сб.: Миология на рубеже веков. Мат–лы 2-й Всерос. научно-практич. конф. Москва; 1990: 14–15.
- Markova E.D., Miklina N.I., Slominsky P.A. et al. Phenotypic polymorphism in large Russian families with dopa-responsive dystonia. In: Eur. J. Neurol. 2005; 12 (Suppl. 2: Proceedings of the IX Congress of the European Federation of Neurological Societies): A99–A100.
- Byzov A.L., Utina I.A. [The centrifugal effects on amacrine cells in the retina of frog]. Neirofiziologiya [Neurophysiology]. 1971; (3): 293-300. (In Russ.).
- Сергеев Д.В., Лаврентьева А.Н., Кротенкова М.В. Методика перфузионной компьютерной томографии в диагностике острого ишемическогоинсульта. Анналы клинической и экспериментальной неврологии 2008; 3 (2): 30–37.
- Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Menon BK. et al. Randomized Assessment of Rapid Endovascular Treatment of Ischemic Stroke. N Engl J Med. 2015; 372:1019-30. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1414905. PMID: 25671798.
Monographs, books and chapters in books:
- 1. Вольф П. Эпилепсия чтения. В кн.: Темин П.А., Никанорова М.Ю. (ред.) Диагностика и лечение эпилепсий у детей. М.: Можайск–Терра, 1997: 188–195.
- 2. Goldman S.M., Tanner C. Etiology of Parkinson’s disease. In: Jankovic J., Tolosa E. (eds.) Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. 3d ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1998: 133–158.
5.Suslina Z.A., Gulevskaya T.S., Maksimova M.Yu., Morgunov V.A. Narusheniya mozgovogo krovoobrashcheniya: diagnostika, lechenie, profilaktika[Cerebrovascular diseases: diagnosis, treatment, prevention]. Moscow. MEDpress-inform, 2016. 536 p. (in Russ.)
1.Lebedev V.P., Malygin A.V. Sposob transkranial’noi elektrostimuliatsii endorfinnykh mekhanizmov mozga i ustroistvo dlia ego osushchestvleniia[TES method and relevant device for brain endorphin system stimulation]. Patent RF, no. 2159639, 1999. (in Russ.).
2.Лебедев В.П., Малыгин А.В. «Способ транскраниальной электростимуляции эндорфинных механизмов мозга и устройство для его осуществления» Патент РФ №2159639 на изобретение, 1999.
1.Trofimenko A.I. Patogeneticheskoe obosnovanie primeneniia TES-terapii pri ishemcheskom insul’te (eksperimental’noe issledovanie). Diss. kand. med. nauk [Pathogenetic fundamentals of TES-therapy application in ischemic stroke (experimental design). PhD med.sci.diss.]. Krasnodar. 2014: 174 p. (in Russ.).
2.Трофименко А.И. Патогенетическое обоснование применения ТЭС-терапии при ишемическом инсульте (экспериментальное исследование): дис. …канд. мед. наук. Краснодар. 2014: 174 с.
Online publications and databases
- Shulman L.M., Gruber-Baldini A.L., Anderson K.E. et al. The evolution of disability in Parkinson’s disease. Mov. Disord. 2008: epub ahead.
- Ataxia. http://www.wemove.org/ataxia/
5.10 Information about the authors
1) Name, Surname(s), Complete mailing address, zip code, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address of the сorresponding author;
2) Names and Surnames of all the authors followed by their highest academic degrees (MD, PhD) and their position and institutional affilliations with the indication of cities and countries