Ультраструктура синапсов коры большого мозга человека в старческом возрасте

N. N. Bogolepov1
1Научный центр неврологии РАМН, Москва, Россия

Аннотация


В настоящем электронно-микроскопическом исследовании показаны изменения ультраструктуры синапсов сенсомоторной и лобной областей коры большого мозга человека в старческом возрасте. Выявлены изменения в распределении синаптических пузырьков в пресинаптическом отростке и механизмах их сближения и стыковки с пресинаптической мембраной. Анализ полученных результатов свидетельствует о том, что нарушение взаимодействия синаптических пузырьков и пресинаптической мембраны является стадией, предшествующей деструкции и исчезновению синапса.

Ключевые слова

синапс; возрастные изменения; функциональная асинапсия; синаптическая патология

Полный текст:

PDF

Литература

Боголепов Н.Н. Ультраструктура синапсов в норме и патологии. М.: Медицина, 1975.

Боголепов Н.Н. Изменения ультраструктуры активной зоны синапсов коры большого мозга при старении. Российские морфологические ведомости 1999; 1: 36–40.

Боголепов Н.Н. Возрастные изменения ультраструктуры синапсов коры большого мозга. Морфология 2002; 223: 23–25.

Боголепов Н.Н., Фрумкина Л.Е. Возрастные изменения ультраструктуры синапсов в мозгу человека. Морфология 2006; 4: 24–28.

Саркисов С.А., Боголепов Н.Н. Электронная микроскопия мозга. М.: Медицина, 1967.

Семченко В.В., Степанов С.Е., Боголепов Н.Н. Синаптическая пластичность головного мозга. Омск, 2008.

Adams J. Plasticity of the synaptic contact zone following loss of synapses in the cerebral cortex of aging humans. Brain Res. 1987; 424: 343–351.

Akopian G., Walsh J.P. Pree and postsynaptic contributions to age-related alterations in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. Synapse 2006; 60: 233–238.

BertoniiFreddari C., Fattoretti P., Casoli T. et al. Morphological plasticity of synaptic mitochondria during aging. Brain Res. 1993; 628: 193–200.

BertoniiFreddari C., Fattoretti P., Giorgetti B. et al. Synaptic pathology in the brain cortex of old monkeys as early alteration in senile plague formation. Rejuvenation Res. 2006; 9: 85–88.

BrunsooBechtold J.K., Linville M.C., Sonntag W.E. Age-related synaptic changes in sensorimotor cortex of the Brown Norway X fischer 334 rat. Brain Res. 2000; 872: 125–133.

Geinisman V., de TolledooMorrell L., Morrell F. Loss of perforated synapses in the dentate gyrus: morphological substrate of memory deficit in aged rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1986; 83: 2027–2031.

Gorini A., Canosi U., Devecchi E. et al. AMPasse enzyme activities during ageing in different types of somatic and synaptic plasma membranes from rat frontal cerebral cortex. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2002; 26: 81–90.

Jawamoto M., Hagishita T., ShojiiKasai V. et al. Age-related changes in the levels of voltageedependent calcium channels and other synaptic proteins in rat brain cortices. Neurosci. Lett. 2004; 336: 277–281.

Konev S.V., Aksentsev St., Okun I.M. et al. Structural reorganization of the brain synaptic membranes and aging. Fiziol. Zh. 1990; 36: 36–42.

Langmeier M., Trojan S. Presynaptic terminals in the sensoriomotors area of the cerebral cortex in old laboratory rats. Sb. Lek. 1991; 93: 203–210.

Lin X., Erikson C., Brun A. Cortical synaptic changes and gliosis in normal aging, alzheimer’s disease and frontal lobe degeneration. Dementia 1996; 7: 128–134.

Lovova I., Lovov V., Petcov V.D. Quantification of the synapses in the hippocampus of aged rats. Z. Mikrosk. Anat. Forsch. 1989; 103: 447–458.

Luebke J.I., Chang V.M., Moore T.L. et al. Normal aging results in decreased synaptic excitation and increased synaptic inhibition of layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in the monkey prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience

; 125: 277–288.

Moll G.H., Mehnert C., Wicher M. et al. Age-associated changes in the densities of presynaptic monoamine transporters in different regions of the rat brain from early juvenite life to late adulthood. Brain Res. Dev. 2000; 119: 251–257.

Nyffeler M., Zhang W.N., Feldon J. et al. Differential expression of PSD proteins in age-related spatial learning impairments. Neurobiol. Aging. 2005; 27: 30.

Pakkenberg B., Pelvig D., Marner L. et al. Aging and the human neocortex. Exp. Gerontol. 2003; 38: 95–99.

Peters A. Structural changes that occur during normal aging of primate cerebral hemispheres. Neurosci. Biobehev. Rev. 2002; 26: 733–41.

Peters A., Moss M.B., Sethares C. The effects of aging on layer 1 of primary visual cortex in the rhesus monkey. Cereb. Cortex 2001; 11: 93–103.

Platano D., BertoniiFreddari C., Fattoretti P. et al. Structural synaptic remodeling in the perirhinal cortex of adult and old rats following object recognition visual training. Rejuvenation Res. 2006; 9: 102–106.

Poe B.H., Linville C., BrunsooDechtold J. Age-related decline of presumptive inhibitory synapses in the sensorimotor cortex as revealed by physial dissector. J. Comp. Neurol., 2001; 439: 65–72.

Saito V., Katsumaru H., Wilson C.J. et al. Light and electron microscopie study of corticorubral synapses in adult cat: evidence for extensive synaptic remodeling during postnatal development. J. Comp. Neurol. 2001; 440: 236–244.

Scheff S.W., Price D.A., Sparks D.L. Quantitative assessment if possible age-related change in synaptic numbers in the human frontal cortex. Neurobiol. Aging 2001; 22: 355?365.

Shi L., Pang H., Linville M.C. et al. Maintenance of inhibitory interneurons and bontons in sensorimotor cortex between middle and old age in Fischer 344XXBrown Norwey rats. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 2006; 32: 46–53.

Shimada A., Keino H., Satoh M. et al. Age-related loss synapses in the frontal cortex of SAMPIO mouse: a model of cerebral degeneration. Synapse 2003; 48: 198–204.

Terry R.D., Katzman R. Life span and synapses: will there be a primary senile dementia. Neurobiol. Aging 2001; 20: 347–348.

Tigges J., Herndon J.G., Rosene D.L. Preservation into old age of synaptic number and size in the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in rhesus monkeys. Acta Anat. (Basel) 1996; 157: 63–72.

De TolledooMorrell L., Geinisman V., Morrell F. Age-dependet alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity: relation to memory disorders. Neurobiol. Aging 1988; 9: 581–590.

Toussaint C., Kugler P. Morphometric analysis of mitochondria and boutons in the dentate gyrus molecular layer of aged rats. Anat. Embryol. (Berl.) 1989; 179: 411–414.

Wong T.P., Campbell P.M., Ribeirooda-Silva A. et al. Synaptic numbers across cortical laminae and cognitive performance of rat during ageing. Neuroscience 1998; 84: 403–412.