Глутаматные рецепторы в клетках нервной и иммунной систем

O. N. Davydova1, A. A. Boldyrev1
1Научный центр неврологии РАМН, Москва, Россия

Аннотация


Роль глутаматных рецепторов в процессах синаптической трансмиссии и экзайтотоксичности достаточно хорошо изучена. Наряду с этим на сегодняшний день становится очевидной экспрессия глутаматных рецепторов в различных типах не нейрональных клеток, где они выполняют иные, зачастую еще неизвестные функции. Несмотря на то, что роль глутаминовой кислоты вне нервной системы пока мало изучена, это соединение можно рассматривать как регуляторную молекулу широкого спектра действия, функции которой не ограничены ЦНС. В частности, недавние исследования показали, что глутаматные рецепторы, экспрессирующиеся в лимфоцитах, участвуют в процессах активации данного типа клеток. В связи с этим в рамках сложившихся представлений о взаимной регуляции иммунной и нервной систем глутамат может рассматриваться как нейроиммуномодулятор. Действие глутамата на иммунокомпетентные клетки может играть важную роль в патогенезе различных заболеваний, в частности, сопровождающихся процессами нейровоспаления и/или повышением уровня глутамата в веществе мозга и периферическом кровотоке.

Ключевые слова

глутамат; NMDA-рецепторы; нейроны; центральная нервная система; лимфоциты; внутриклеточная сигнализация

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Литература

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