State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the main methods of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnostic, differential diagnostic and disease course monitoring. Conventional MRI techniques have low sensitivity in the assessment of diffuse damage of normal appearing white matter and focal/diffuse damage of grey matter which are of great interest in MS. Advanced MRI techniques allow to get over these limitations and to obtain more specific information about MS pathogenesis. Thus MR-spectroscopy metabolites analysis helps to assess inflammation, myelin structure, remyelination and axonal loss or dysfunction, i.e. lets us see pathochemical changes in MS. Demyelination and axonal loss differentiation is possible due to MR magnetization transfer technique and also diffusion tensor imaging, which characterize water diffusion in the brain tissue restricted by cell membranes and axonal cytoskeleton. Grey matter damage could be assessed using sequences with one or two inverted impulses and morphometric analysis of atrophy. Functional MRI performance using different paradigms characterizes cortical reorganization in response to functional injury. Vascular aspects of MS are also widely discussed nowadays. MR-perfusion and susceptibility weighted imaging allow assessing perfusion and venous flowing changes. State-of-the art neuroimaging methods let us perform detailed analysis of tissue damage in MS including the cell level, obtain more precise information about functional, metabolic and pathologic features, therapy influence on the inflammatory reactions and neuroprotection. Perspective use of high-field MR scanners (more than 1.5 T) will lead to the increase of sensitivity of different pathologic mechanisms detection.

About the authors

V. V. Bryukhov

Research Center of Neurology

Author for correspondence.
Russian Federation, Moscow

S. N. Kulikova

Research Center of Neurology

Russian Federation, Moscow

Marina V. Krotenkova

Research Center of Neurology

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3820-4554

D. Sci. (Med.), Head, Neuroradiology department

Russian Federation, 125367 Moscow, Volokolamskoye shosse, 80

A. V. Peresedova

Research Center of Neurology

Russian Federation, Moscow

I. A. Zavalishin

Research Center of Neurology

Russian Federation, Moscow


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Copyright (c) 2013 Bryukhov V.V., Kulikova S.N., Krotenkova M.V., Peresedova A.V., Zavalishin I.A.

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