About astroglia in the brain and pathology

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Abstract

More than 140 years astrocytes were described as passive cellular elements of the brain, and their function was limited participation in providing trophic potential of neurons. It was described as doctrine of “neuronism” which supported such famous scientists as H.W. von Waldeyer and S. Ramun y Cajal, who is the author of phrases “each nerve cell – a fully autonomous physiological canton”. During last time we can see a revision of views on the role of astrocytes in the brain. Astrocyte is equal partner of the neuron in such fundamental functions of the brain, as modulation of synaptic transmission, gliotransmission and regulation of microcirculation. Discovery of a new element of glia – NG2 cells, identification of the relationship between neuronal networks and astrocyte syncytium have changed the doctrine of neuronism. New paradigm revises the role of astroglia in the brain in health and disease.

 

About the authors

S. A. Goryaynov

N.N. Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences

Author for correspondence.
Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

S. V. Protsky

Research Center of Neurology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

V. E. Okhotin

Institute of Gene Biology, RAS (Moscow)

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

G. V. Pavlova

Institute of Gene Biology, RAS (Moscow)

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

A. V. Revischin

Institute of Gene Biology, RAS (Moscow)

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

A. A. Potapov

N.N. Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2017 Goryaynov S.A., Protsky S.V., Okhotin V.E., Pavlova G.V., Revischin A.V., Potapov A.A.

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