New horizons of non-invasive brain stimulation in clinical medicine

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Abstract

Non-invasive brain stimulation belongs to most significant neurotechnologies which have arisen in the XXIth century and are characterized by universal medical importance. This group of methods comprises rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS). A spectrum of conditions for which these methods may be effective is steadily expanding and includes a variety of prevalent disorders of the modern society, such as obesity, depression, etc. The low effectiveness of lifestyle modification, as well as a wide range of pharmacological drugs’ side effects and high risks of surgical treatment determine the need to search for new safe methods of correction of eating behavior and obesity, a real pandemy of our society. A number of data suggest the patogenic role of changes of the frontal-striatal interactions in eating behanior disorders. Taking into account the existing models of the development of food dependence, the main approach to the use of rTMS and tDCS is stimulation of areas involved in cognitive control, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Current data on studies of rTMS and tDCS in patients with impairment of eating behavior, as well as safety issues of using these techniques in routine clinical practice are reviewed.

About the authors

A. G. Poydasheva

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow

Author for correspondence.
Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

I. S. Bakulin

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

N. A. Suponeva

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

E. A. Troshina

National Medical Research Center of Endocrinology, Moscow

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

M. M. Tanashyan

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

I. I. Dedov

National Medical Research Center of Endocrinology, Moscow

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

M. A. Piradov

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2018 Poydasheva A.G., Bakulin I.S., Suponeva N.A., Troshina E.A., Tanashyan M.M., Dedov I.I., Piradov M.A.

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