Atherothrombotic stroke in women: blood thrombogenicity and the vascular wall

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Abstract

Introduction. Haemostasis and functional changes of the vascular wall are the strategic and actively developing aspects in the study of ischaemic stroke pathogenesis.

The aim of current work was to examine the relationship between hormonal status, thrombogenic blood factors, and the structural and functional changes in the vascular wall in women after atherothrombotic stroke in the internal carotid territory.

Materials and methods. Twenty-nine women (mean age 55 years) in the first 3 months after atherothrombotic stroke, diagnosed using the international TOAST criteria, were included in the study. The severity of neurological impairment was evaluated using the NIH Stroke Scale. The follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and homocysteine levels, along with haemostasis parameters and rheological properties of red blood cells were examined. Ultrasound of the major arteries of the head, assessment of the elastic properties and mural shear stress in the common carotid artery, as well as evaluation of the vasomotor function of the brachial artery endothelium were conducted.

Results. Clinical differences in the atherosclerotic stroke were found in women depending on their FSH levels: moderate and severe neurological impairments were noted when the FSG level was ³30 mIU/mL, while mild impairments were present when the FSG level was <30 mIU/mL. It was found that a high FSH level in women is associated with significant arterial hypertension, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The group of women with high FSH levels had elevated fibrinogen, homocysteine, von Willebrand factor, erythrocyte aggregation amplitude, along with the accelerated formation of 3D aggregates and increased erythrocyte aggregate strength. In women with insufficient estrogen production in the ovaries (FSH ³30 mIU/mL), the stiffness index of the common carotid artery wall was significantly higher, while the mural shear stress and endothelial vasomotor function were lower than in the group of women with preserved ovarian function.

Conclusions. A link between menopause, increased blood thrombogenicity, and structural and functional changes in the vascular wall (increased stiffness, reduced mural shear stress and endothelial vasomotor function) was found in women after atherothrombotic stroke.

About the authors

Marina Yu. Maksimova

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow

Author for correspondence.
Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

Аndrey O. Chechetkin

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

Aleksandra S. Moskvicheva

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

Alla A. Shabalina

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2020 Maksimova M.Y., Chechetkin А.O., Moskvicheva A.S., Shabalina A.A.

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