Non-pharmacological prevention and correction of cognitive disorders

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Abstract

This review deals with research on the effect of board games on the prevention of cognitive disorders in the older population. It is known that activities using board games significantly enhance educational and intellectual abilities in children. However, data on the effect of such interventions in older patients (including those at risk for developing dementia) are few and equivocal. In the Bronx Aging Study, reading, board games, playing musical instruments, and dancing were associated with a reduced risk of cognitive disorders. The MoVIES study assessed the cognitive status of 942 participants aged 65 years and older, and a lower risk of dementia was found in those who devoted more than 1 hour per day to 'recreational activities'. The French study of the PAQUID cohort showed that those who regularly played board games had a 15% lower risk of developing dementia than those who did not.

This review attempts to systematize the known data (including functional MRI data) on how playing board games influences changes in cognitive function. The article covers memory mechanisms that are necessary components of cognitive health. Structures that are directly involved in long-term memory formation, especially explicit memory, including the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and entorhinal cortex, are described.

The article includes studies covering not only geographical, economic and social status, age, gender, and level of cognitive load, but also the different assessments measuring the effect board games have on the brain. Different assessment methods and functional MRI data have demonstrated the potential effectiveness of using board games in the prevention of both age-related and pathological intellectual ageing.

About the authors

Anton A. Raskurazhev

Research Center of Neurology

Author for correspondence.
Email: rasckey@live.com
Russian Federation, Moscow

Polina I. Kuznetsova

Research Center of Neurology

Email: rasckey@live.com
Russian Federation, Moscow

Marine M. Tanashyan

Research Center of Neurology

Email: rasckey@live.com
Russian Federation, Moscow

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Copyright (c) 2020 Raskurazhev A.A., Kuznetsova P.I., Tanashyan M.M.

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