Episodic memory: neurological and neuromediator mechanisms

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Significant advances in understanding of neurological and neuromediator mechanisms of memory along with the causes of memory decline in aging were achieved recently. Functioning of episodic memory system needs considerable energetic and material (neuromediator, protein) resources, and appears to be highly consuming for the body. Therefore, physiological mechanisms inhibiting episodic memory system exist in order to distribute resources for other brain functions. Primary engram is recorded by hippocampal structures, which maintain reciprocal connectivity with neocortex zones involved in synchronized activity. Cholinergic innervation of hippocampus and primary zones of neocortex stabilizes process of primary engram formation with consequent transformation of synapses in hippocampus structures. At the next stage hippocampus transfers the engram to neocortex, where the information is processed by associating with previous knowledge and is fixed by slowly developing synaptogenesis and axonal growth. Noradrenergic innervation is an essential part of neuroplastic processes. Possible causes of memory decline in aging include powerful influences of mature prefrontal cortex, inhibiting the hippocampal activity; insufficient stimulation of hippocampal memory system by novel events with consequent decline of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity; disturbances in mechanisms of phasic release and
clearance of neuromediators.

About the authors

A. G. Polunina

Moscow Research Practical Center of Narcology

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation, Moscow

E. A. Bryun

Moscow Research Practical Center of Narcology

Author for correspondence.
Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation, Moscow


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Copyright (c) 2012 Polunina A.G., Bryun E.A.

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