Episodic memory: neurological and neuromediator mechanisms

Cover Page


Cite item

Abstract

Significant advances in understanding of neurological and neuromediator mechanisms of memory along with the causes of memory decline in aging were achieved recently. Functioning of episodic memory system needs considerable energetic and material (neuromediator, protein) resources, and appears to be highly consuming for the body. Therefore, physiological mechanisms inhibiting episodic memory system exist in order to distribute resources for other brain functions. Primary engram is recorded by hippocampal structures, which maintain reciprocal connectivity with neocortex zones involved in synchronized activity. Cholinergic innervation of hippocampus and primary zones of neocortex stabilizes process of primary engram formation with consequent transformation of synapses in hippocampus structures. At the next stage hippocampus transfers the engram to neocortex, where the information is processed by associating with previous knowledge and is fixed by slowly developing synaptogenesis and axonal growth. Noradrenergic innervation is an essential part of neuroplastic processes. Possible causes of memory decline in aging include powerful influences of mature prefrontal cortex, inhibiting the hippocampal activity; insufficient stimulation of hippocampal memory system by novel events with consequent decline of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity; disturbances in mechanisms of phasic release and
clearance of neuromediators.

About the authors

A. G. Polunina

Moscow Research Practical Center of Narcology

Author for correspondence.
Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

E. A. Bryun

Moscow Research Practical Center of Narcology

Email: platonova@neurology.ru
Russian Federation

References

  1. Гриневич В. Нервные клетки не восстанавливаются. Наука и техника 2009; 38 (7): 75–78.
  2. Литвиненко И.В., Леонова Е.В. Терапевтические аспекты нарушений циркадианного ритма высвобождения ацетилхолина при деменции. Пожилой Пациент 2009; 1: 31–35.
  3. Сидоров П.И., Парняков А.В. Клиническая психология. М.: ГЭОТАР-МЕД, 2002: 109–138.
  4. Alagiakrishnan K., Wiens C.A. An approach to drug induced delirium in the elderly. Postgrad. Med. J. 2004; 80: 388–393.
  5. Anderson C., Horne J.A. Prefrontal cortex: links between low frequency delta EEG in sleep and neuropsychological performance in healthy, older people. Psychophysiology 2003; 40: 349–357.
  6. Bradshaw C.M. Neuropsychopharmacology. In: Halligan P.W., Kischka U., Marshall J.C. (eds:). Handbook of Clinical Neuropsychology. New Yourk: Oxford University Press, 2003: 445–469.
  7. Burianova H., McIntosh A.R., Grady C.L. A common functional brain network for autobiographical, episodic, and semantic memory retrieval. NeuroImage 2010; 49: 865–874.
  8. Campo P., Maestu F., Ortiz T. et al. Time modulated prefrontal and parietal acitivity during the maintenance of integrated information as revealed by magnetoencephalography. Cerebral Cortex 2005; 15: 123–130.
  9. Capellini I., McNamara P., Preston B.T. et al. Does sleep play a role in memory consolidation? A comparative test. PLoS ONE 2009; 4 (2): e4609.
  10. Casey B.J., Thomas K.M., Davidson M.C. et al. Dissociating striatal and hippocampal function developmentally with a stimulus-response compatibility task. J. Neurosci. 2002; 22 (19): 8647–8652.
  11. Cayre M., Canoll P., Goldman J.E. Cell migration in the normal and pathological postnatal mammalian brain. Prog. Neurobiol. 2009; 88 (1): 41–63.
  12. De Toledo-Morrell L., Dickerson B., Sullivan M.P. et al. Hemispheric differences in hippocampal volume predict verbal and spatial memory performance in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Hippocampus 2000; 10: 136–142.
  13. Den Heijer T., Oudkerk M., Launer L.J. et al. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and global brain atrophy in different apolipoprotein E genotypes. Neurology 2002; 59: 746–748.
  14. Dickerson B.C., Eichenbaum H. The episodic memory system: neurocircuitry and disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews 2010; 35: 86–104.
  15. Draganski B., Gaser C., Kempermann G. et al. Temporal and spatial dynamics of brain structure changes during extensive learning. The Journal of Neuroscience 2006; 26(23): 6314–6317.
  16. Gais S., Born J. Low acetylcholine during slow-wave sleep is critical for declarative memory consolidation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 2004; 101: 2140–2144.
  17. Geinisman Yu. Structural synaptic modifications associated with hippocampal LTP and behavioral learning. Cerebral Cortex 2000; 10: 952–962.
  18. Goldstein F.C., Mao H., Wang L. et al. White matter integrity and episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Brain Imaging and Behavior 2009; 3 (2): 132–141.
  19. Greenwood P.M., Parasuraman R. Neuronal and cognitive plasticity: a neurocognitive framcework for ameliorating cognitive aging. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 2010; 2: 150.
  20. Hains A.B., Arnsten A.F.T. Molecular mechanisms of stress-induced prefrontal cortical impairment: implications for mental illness. Learning and Memory 2008; 15 (8): 551–64.
  21. Ivanco T.L., Racine R.J. Long-term potentiation in the reciprocal corticohippocampal and corticocortical pathways in the chronically implanted, freely moving rat. Hippocampus 2000; 10: 143–152.
  22. Jasinska M., Siucinska E., Cybulska-Klosowicz A. et al. Rapid, learning- induced inhibitory synaptogenesis in murine barrel field. J. Neurosci. 2010; 30 (3): 1176–1184.
  23. Karlsson M.P., Frank L.M. Awake replay of remote experiences in the hippocampus. Nat. Neurosci. 2009; 12 (7): 913–918.
  24. Lee G.P., Loring D.W., Flanigin H.F. et al. Electrical stimulation of the human hippocampus produces verbal intrusions during memory testing. Neuropsychologia 1988; 26 (4): 623–627.
  25. Lenroot R.K., Giedd J.N. Brain development in children and adolescents: insights from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2006; 30 (6): 718–29.
  26. Lian J., Goldstein A., Donchin E., He B. Cortical potential imaging of episodic memory encoding. Brain Topography 2002; 15 (1): 29–36.
  27. Lu B., Wang K.H., Nose A. Molecular mechanisms underlying neural circuit formation. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 2009; 19 (2): 162–167.
  28. Markowitsch H.J. Functional neuroanatomy of learning and memory. In: Halligan P.W., Kischka U., Marshall J.C. (eds:). Handbook of Clinical Neuropsychology. New Yourk: Oxford University Press, 2003: 724–730.
  29. Nadel L. The parahippocampal region: basic and clinical implications. Hippocampus 2000; 10: 133–135.
  30. Pal D., Mallick B.N. Neural mechanism of rapid eye movement sleep generation with reference to REM-OFF neurons in locus coeruleus. Indian J. Med. Res. 2007; 125: 721–739.
  31. Paredes D.A., Cartford M.C., Catlow B.J. et al. Neurotransmitter release during delay eyeblink classical conditioning: role of neorepinephrine in consolidation and effect of age. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 2009; 92 (3): 267–282.
  32. Payne J.D., Schacter D.L., Propper R. et al. The role of sleep in false memory formation. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 2009; 92 (3): 327–334. Том 6. № 3 2012 60
  33. Plessen K.J., Bansal R., Zhu H. et al. Hippocampus and amygdale morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2006; 63: 795–807.
  34. Procko C., Shaham S. Synaptogenesis: new roles for an old player. Curr. Biol. 2009; 29 (24): R1114–1115.
  35. Ranganath C., Paller K.A. Neural correlates of memory retrieval and evaluation. Cognitive Brain Research 2000; 9: 209–222.
  36. Ranganath C., Rainer G. Neural mechanisms for detecting and remembering novel events. Nature Review: Neuroscience 2003; 4: 193–202.
  37. Rasch B., Gais S., Born J. Impaired off-line consolidation of motor memories after combined blockade of cholinergic receptors during REM sleep- rich sleep. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009; 34: 1843–1853.
  38. Robertson E.M. From creation to consolidation: a novel framework for memory processing. PLoS Biology 2009; 7: e1000019.
  39. Roopun A.K., Lebeau F.E., Ramell J. et al. Cholinergic neuromodulation controls directed temporal communication in neocortex in vitro. Front. Neural Circuits 2010; 22 (4): 8.
  40. Sarter M., Hasselmo M.E., Bruno J.P., Givens B. Unraveling the attentional functions of cortical cholinergic inputs: interactions between signal-driven and cognitive modulation of signal detection. Brain Research Reviews 2005; 48: 98–111.
  41. Steenland H.W., Wu V., Fukushima H. et al. CaMKIV over-expression boosts cortical 4-7 Hz oscillations during learning and 1-4 Hz delta oscillations during sleep. Molecular Brain 2010; 3: 16.
  42. Stoeckli E., Zou Y. How are neurons wired to form functional and plastic circuits? EMBO reports 2009; 10(4): 326–330.
  43. Suzuki M., Hagino H., Nohara S. et al. Male-specific volume expansion of the human hippocampus during adolescence. Cerebral Cortex 2005; 15: 187–193.
  44. Takashima A., Nieuwenhuis I.L.C., Jensen O. et al. Shift from hippocampal to neocortical centered retrieval network with consolidation. J. Neurosc. 2009; 29 (32): 10087–10093.
  45. Tarnow E. Short term memory may be the depletion of the readily releasable pool of presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles of a metastable long term memory trace pattern. Cogn. Neurodyn. 2009; 3: 263–269.
  46. Veyrac A., Sacquet J., Nguyen V. et al. Novelty determines the effects of olfactory enrichment on memory and neurogenesis through noradrenergic mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009; 34: 786–795.
  47. Vinogradova O.S., Brazhnik E.S., Kitchigina V.F., Stafekhina V.S. Acetylcholine, theta-rhythm and activity of hippocampal neurons in the rabbit — IV. Sensory stimulation. Neuroscience 1993; 53(4): 981–91.
  48. Vinogradova O.S. Expression, control, and probable functional significance of the neuronal theta-rhythm. Prog. Neurobiol. 1995; 45 (6): 523–83.
  49. Waber D.P., De Moor C., Forbes P.W. et al. The NIH MRI study of normal brain development: performance of a population based sample of healthy children aged 6 to 18 years on a neuropsychological battery. J. Int. Neuropsycholog. Soc. 2007; 13: 1–18.
  50. Walker M.P. The role of slow wave sleep in memory processing. J. Clin. Sleep Med. 2009; 5 (Sup. 2): S20–S26.
  51. Wang J.X., Poe G., Zochowski M. From network heterogeneities to familiarity detection and hippocampal memory management. Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 2008; 78 (4 Pt 1): 041905. 52. Wilke M., Holland S.K., Krägeloh-Mann I. Global, regional and local development of gray and white matter volume in normal children. Exp. Brain Res. 2002; 178 (3): 296–307.
  52. Yordanova J., Kolev V., Verleger R. Awareness of knowledge or awareness of processing? Implications for sleep-related memory condolidation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2009; 3: 40.

Copyright (c) 2012 Polunina A.G., Bryun E.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: серия ПИ № ФС 77-83204 от 12.05.2022.


This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies