Locomotion supraspinal control assessment in healthy people and stroke patients with the use of passive motor fMRI paradigm

Cover Page

Cite item

Full Text


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is widely applicable for sensorimotor cortex mapping in human. The most challenging fMRI task for researchers is the assessment of locomotion. The aim of our study was to design of a passive motor fMRI paradigm for assess supraspinal control of the skillof walking in normal subjects and in patients with motor neurologic deficit after ischemic stroke. We conducted fMRI in two groups of human subjects: first group – 19 healthy subjects (10 females and 9 males, mean age = 38 [31,5; 60] years), second group – 18 ischemic stroke patients in early recovery period (first 6 months) (6 females, 12 males, mean age = 55,5 [45,5; 64,5] years) with severe and moderate (mean Fugl- Meyer scale score = 22 [15; 28]).The protocol consisted of blocked-design paradigm: plantar stimulation by imitation of slow walking vs rest. Individual and group activation patterns were analyzed using statistical package SPM5. A significant activation (pcorrect<0.05 at cluster level) in first group was observed in the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortex, premotor and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, in insula. Due to lesion localization second group was subdivided into corticalsubcotrical (CS) and subcortical (S) subgroups. In CS subgroup there was reduce of activation size, more prominent in the affected hemisphere, whereas in S subgroup the extension of activation regions in both hemispheres was revealed, comparing to group 1. It was demonstrated that our passive motor fMRI paradigm of walking imitation with the use of plantar load imitator Korvit can be used to localize the ensorimotor brain areas involved in locomotion in both healthy people and patients. Concerning stroke patients, such an approach can help in understanding the mechanisms of supraspinal control of the skill walking and optimal rehabilitation strategy.


About the authors

Elena I. Kremneva

Research Center of Neurology

Author for correspondence.
Email: moomin10j@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9396-6063

Cand. Sci. (Med.), senior researcher, Radiology department

Russian Federation, 125367, Russia, Moscow, Volokolamskoye shosse, 80

Lyudmila A. Chernikova

Reseach Center of Neurology

Email: moomin10j@mail.ru
Russian Federation, Moscow

Rodion N. Konovalov

Research Center of Neurology

Email: moomin10j@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5539-245X

Cand. Sci. (Med.), senior researcher, Neuroradiology department

Russian Federation, 125367 Moscow, Volokolamskoye shosse, 80

Marina V. Krotenkova

Research Center of Neurology

Email: moomin10j@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3820-4554

D. Sci. (Med.), Head, Radiology department

Russian Federation, 125367, Russia, Moscow, Volokolamskoye shosse, 80

I. V. Saenko

SSC RF Institute of blomedical problems, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: moomin10j@mail.ru
Russian Federation, Moscow

I. B. Kozlovskaya

SSC RF Institute of blomedical problems, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: moomin10j@mail.ru
Russian Federation, Moscow

Alexander V. Chervyakov

Research Center of Neurology

Email: moomin10j@mail.ru
Russian Federation, Moscow


  1. Бернштейн Н.А. О построении движений. М.: Медгиз, 1947:107–144.
  2. Физиология человека (в 3-х томах) под ред. Р. Шмидта иГ. Тевса, 3-е изд. – М.: Мир, 2005, Т1: 157.
  3. Calautti C., Baron J.-C. Functional neuroimaging studies of motorrecovery after stroke in adults. Stroke, 2003; 34: 1553–1566.
  4. Cao Y., D’Olhaberriague L., Vikingstad E.M. et al.Pilot study offunctional MRI to assess cerebral activation of motor function afterpoststroke hemiparesis. Stroke. 1998; 29: 112–122.
  5. Cramer S.C., Moore C.I., Finklestein S.P., Rosen B.R.A pilot studyof somatotopic mapping after cortical infarct. Stroke. 2000; 31:668–671.
  6. Crenna P., Frigo C.A motor programme for the initiation of for-ward-oriented movements in humans. J. Physiol., 1991; 437: 635–653.
  7. De Renzi E., Faglioni P., Sorgato P. Modality-specific andsupramodal mechanisms of apraxia. Brain, 1982; 105 (2): 301–312.
  8. Derrfuss J., Brass M., von Cramon D.Y.Cognitive control in the pos-terior frontolateral cortex: evidence from common activations in taskcoordination, interference control, and working memory. Neuroimage,2004; 23(2): 604–612.
  9. Dettmers C., Stephan K.M., Lemon R.N., Frackowiak R.S.J.Reorganization of the executive motor system after stroke. CerebrovascDis. 1997; 7: 187–200.
  10. Friston K.J., Holmes A.P., Worsley K.J. et al.Statistical parametricmaps in functional imaging: A general linear approach. Human BrainMapping, 1995, 2 (4): 189–210.
  11. Gerardin E., Sirigu A., Lehericy S. et al. Partially overlapping neuralnetworks for real and imagined hand movements. Cereb Cortex, 2002;10 (11): 1093–1104.
  12. .Golaszewski S.M., Siedentopf C.M., Baldauf E. et al. Functionalmagnetic resonance imaging of the human sensorimotor cortex using anovel vibrotactile stimulator. NeuroImage, 2002; 17: 421–430.
  13. Golaszewski S.M., Siedentopf C.M., Koppelstaetter F. et al. Humanbrain structures related to plantar vibrotactile stimulation: A functionalmagnetic resonance imaging study. NeuroImage, 2006; 29: 923–929.
  14. Heilman K.M., Rothi L.J., Valenstein E.Two forms of ideomotorapraxia. Neurology, 1982; 32 (4): 342–346.
  15. Henry J.D., Crawford J.R.A meta-analytic review of verbal fluencyperformance following focal cortical lesions. Neuropsychology, 2004;18 (2): 284–295.
  16. .Holmes G. The Croonian lectures on the clinical symptoms of cere-bellar disease and their interpretation. Lancet, 1922; 1: 1177–1237.
  17. Iseki K., Hanakawa T., Shinozaki J. et al. Neural mechanismsinvolved in mental imagery and observation of gait. NeuroImage, 2008;41: 1021–1031.
  18. Jackson P.L., Lafleur M.F., Malouin F. et al. Functional cerebralreorganization following motor sequence learning through mentalpractice with motor imagery. Neuroimage, 2003; 20 (2): 1171–1180.
  19. .Jahn K., Deutschlander A., Stephan T. et al.Brain activation patternsduring imagined stance and locomotion in functional magnetic reso-nance imaging. NeuroImage, 2004; 22: 1722–1731.
  20. .Jian Y., Winter D.A., Ishac M.G., Gilchrist L. Trajectory of the bodyCOG and COP during initiation and termination of gait. Gait Posture,1993; 1: 9–22.
  21. .Kozlovskaya I.B., Sayenko I.V., Sayenko D.G. et al. Role of supportafferentation in control of the tonic muscle activity. Acta Astronautica,2007; 60: 285–294.
  22. .Kozlovskaya I.B., Vinogradova O.V., Sayenko I.V. et al.Newapproaches to countermeasures of the negative effects of microgravityin long-term space flights. Acta Astronautica, 2006; 59: 13–19.
  23. .la Fougere C., Zwergal A., Rominger A. et al. Real versus imaginedlocomotion: A [18F]-FDG PET-fMRI comparison. NeuroImage,2010; 50: 1589–1598.
  24. Lafleur M.F., Jackson P.L., Malouin F. et al.Motor learning pro-duces parallel dynamic functional changes during the execution andimagination of sequential foot movements. Neuroimage, 2002; 16 (1):142–157.
  25. Lotze M., Montoya P., Erb M. et al. Activation of cortical and cere-bellar motor areas during executed and imagined hand movements: anfMRI study. J Cogn Neurosci, 1999; 11 (5): 491–501.
  26. .McFadyen B., Winter D.A. Anticipatory locomotor adjustments dur-ing obstructed human walking. Neurosci. Res.,1991; 9: 37–44.
  27. Mehta J.P., Verber M.D., Wieser J.A. et al. A novel technique forexamining human brain activity associated with pedaling using fMRI.Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 2009; 179: 230–239.
  28. Nair D.G., Purcott K.L., Fuchs A.Cortical and cerebellar activity ofthe human brain during imagined and executed unimanual and biman-ual action sequences: a functional MRI study. Brain Res Cogn BrainRes, 2003; 15 (3): 250–260.
  29. Penfield W., Boldrey E. Somatic motor and sensory representationin the cerebral cortex of man as studied by electrical stimulation. Brain1937; 60: 389–443.
  30. Righini A., de Diviitis O., Prinster A. et al.Functional MRI: Primarymotor cortex localization in patients with brain tumors. J. Comp. Assist.Tomogr., 1996; 20 (5): 702–706.
  31. Sacco K., Cauda F., Cerliani L. et al.Motor imagery of walking fol-lowing training in locomotor attention. The effect of 'the tango lesson'.NeuroImage, 2006; 32 (3): 1441–9.
  32. Seitz R.J., Hoflich P., Binkofski F. et al. Role of the premotor cortexin recovery from middle cerebral artery infarction. Arch Neurol. 1998;55: 1081–1088

Supplementary files

Supplementary Files

Copyright (c) 2012 Kremneva E.I., Chernikova L.A., Konovalov R.N., Krotenkova M.V., Saenko I.V., Kozlovskaya I.B., Chervyakov A.V.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: серия ПИ № ФС 77-83204 от 12.05.2022.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies