The haemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarction: classification; pathogenesis; predictors and effect on the functional outcome

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Using specific keywords; we searched for articles from the last 10 years on haemorrhagic transformation (HT) of cerebral infarction (CI); which were available on the PubMed database. This article provides an analysis and a summary of the information on the classification; pathogenesis and predictors (clinical; laboratory; neuroimaging; including the use of integrative assessment scales) of HT; as well as its impact on the functional outcome of the condition. It is emphasized that HT is a multifactorial pathological process in its phenomenology; including brain ischaemia; the development of coagulopathy; disturbances in the integrity of the blood–brain barrier and reperfusion injury. The emphasis is placed on careful monitoring of patients with acute ischaemic infarct after intravenous thrombolytic therapy and/or endovascular intervention; as well as those patients with a high predicted risk of HT. Timely and regular neuroimaging should be carried out to detect HT as soon as possible. Type 2 parenchymal haematomas; the most severe type of HT; are most often associated with high mortality and an unfavourable functional outcome.

About the authors

Dina R. Khasanova

Kazan State Medical University; Interregional Clinical Diagnostic Centre

Russian Federation, Kazan

Mikhail N. Kalinin

Kazan State Medical University; Interregional Clinical Diagnostic Centre

Author for correspondence.
Russian Federation, Kazan

Мurat M. Ibatullin

Kazan State Medical University; Interregional Clinical Diagnostic Centre

Russian Federation, Kazan

Ilnur Sh. Rakhimov

Elabuga Institute (Branch) of the Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University

Russian Federation, Elabuga


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