Vol 8, No 4 (2014)

Original articles

The structure of cerebrovascular diseases in an open population of Ulyanovsk

Belova L.A., Mashin V.V., Saprygina L.V., Kravchenko M.A., Gnedovskaya E.V., Oshchepkova E.V., Varakyn Y.Y., Suslina Z.A.

Abstract

We conducted an epidemiological study of an open population (aged 40–59 yrs) restricted to the two therapeutic clusters of a regional out-patient clinic, Ulyanovsk city. A total of 500 people were examined, including 157 men and 343 women. The mean age was 51.1±6.8 yrs. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 46.8% of the population. The prevalence of “definite” cases of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) was 25.4%, including: hypertensive cerebral crises (HCC) – 3.6%, transient ischemic attacks – 0.6%, stroke – 3.6%, initial stages of cerebrovascular disease (ISCVD) –7.0%, and chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD) – 10.6%. The prevalence of all types of CVD was similar among both sexes, with the exception of HCC occurring much more frequently in women. Two types of CVD dominated in the structure of CVD, CCI and ISCVD (68.8% of all registered cases of CVD). A significant prevalence (52%) of initial-stage cases of CVD, ISCVD and CCI-stage I, underlines the need for active preventive measures of acute and severe chronic forms of CVD.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014;8(4):
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Clinical-sonographic and neurophysiological comparisons in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy

Vuytsik N.B., Chechetkin A.O., Pavlov E.V., Klushnikov S.A., Illarioshkin S.N.

Abstract

The article presents the results of ultrasound studies in patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). Based on standard electroneuromiography, the patients were divided into two groups with demyelinating (n=25) or axonal (n=31) process, CMT1 and CMT2 respectively. Demyelinating forms were characterized by specific prolonged sonographic changes with uniform thickening of all studied nerves and abnormalities of their cable structure. In axonal forms the character of structural changes was not as severe and specific as in CMT1, but symmetrical prolongation of the nerve structure was seen in this type of CMT as well. The description of genetically confirmed familial cases of HMSN type 1X in male relatives is presented, which demonstrates modern potential of unltrasound studies in diagnosing the involvement of peripheral nerves in patients from a heterogeneous group of hereditary neuropahies.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014;8(4):
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Epidemiology of hereditary diseases of the nervous system in the Republic of Tajikistan (by example of Hissar district)

Rakhmonov R.A., Madaminova T.V.

Abstract

The article presents epidemiological data concerning studies of hereditary diseases of the nervous system (HDNS) in the territory of Hissar district of Tajikistan. In total, 76 patients were identified (including 52 men and 24 women), and 9 different forms of HDNS were diagnosed. Among all forms, the most frequent form was limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n=24), the prevalence of which was 8.4 per 100 000 population, which is 2.5 times higher than in districts of Khatlon region of the country. The lowest frequency was registered for Bekker progressive muscular dystrophy (n=1). The HDNS prevalence ratio between rural and urban areas was 1:1 (2.9 and 2.8 per 10 000 population, respectively). The total prevalence of HDNS all over the region was 28.8 per 100 000 population.

Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014;8(4):
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A complex of rehabitation in writer’s cramp

Shavlovskaya O.A.

Abstract

Writer’s cramp (WC) is one of the forms of focal dystonia involving the hand muscles and characterized by sevective motor defect leading to problems with writing. Therapy of WC represents serious difficulties and remains to be an unresolved problem of clinical neurology. In this paper we present our experience of using a complex of rehabilitation directed at sensory-motor reprogramming and correction of predisposing physical factors in 86 patients with idiopathic WC (26 men and 60 women with mean age of 39.6±12.5 years). This complex was shown to lead to good or satisfactory results in 79.3% of patients, and the obtained effect lasted for a period of up to 10 years.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014;8(4):
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Innervation of blood vessels in subcortical regions of the brain by immunoreactive neurons

Berezhnaya L.A.

Abstract

Human dorsal thalamic nuclei (VA, VL and Md), striatum, pallidum and capsula interna were studied. Structural elements of neurons that provide afferent and efferent innervation of blood vessels in the human brain were stained for NADPhdiaphorase, parvalbumin and calretinin. Such approach revealing immunoreactive neurons with their branches made it possible to identify two types of neurons: long-axonal and shortaxonal. Dendrite-vascular and axon- vascular contacts of these immunoreactive neurons were shown.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014;8(4):
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Vertigo: new technologies of quantification and their role in the differential diagnosis of vestibular dysfunction

Likhachev S.A., Maryenko I.P.

Abstract

A new technology, vertigometry, is developed to qualify the severuty of vertigo. It is based on videostimulation of patient withpanoramic images in horizontal and vertical planes, which is modeling systemic vertigo. With the use of this method, direction and severity of rotating vertigo were determined through different-velocity videostimulation with panoramic images in patients with vestibular dysfunction. It was found that positiondependent peripheral vestibular syndrome is characterized by hight velocity of visual vertigo, from 1116.3 to 149.5 °/s, while cervical induced vertigo is characterized by velocity of 31.9 to 65.1 °/s (p<0.05). Patients with psychogenic vertigo could not present clearly the direction and intensity of their vertigo.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014;8(4):
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Extrapyramidal movement disorders in patients after stroke

Pizova N.V.

Abstract

Presented are the clinical spectrum and the frequency of main forms of extrapyramidal movement disorders in patients after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. The major cause of movement disorders in these cases are lesions within the basal ganglia and the thalamus. In the review, most important approaches to the therapy of post-stroke movement disorders, including surgery, are analyzed, and questions of long-term prognosis of poststroke movement disorders are discussed.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014;8(4):
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Regenerative potential of the brain: composition and forming of regulatory microenvironment in neurogenic niches

Komleva Y.K., Kuvacheva N.V., Malinocskaya N.A., Gorina Y.V., Lopatina O.L., Teplyashina E.A., Pozhilenkova E.A., Zamay A.S., Morgun A.V., Salmina A.B.

Abstract

An important mechanism of neuronal plasticity is neurogenesis, which occurs during the embryonic period, forming the brain and its structure, and in the postnatal period, providing repair processes and participating in the mechanisms of memory consolidation. Adult neurogenesis in mammals, including humans, is limited in two specific brain areas, the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles (subventricular zone) and the granular layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (subgranular zone). Neural stem cells (NSC), self-renewing, multipotent progenitor cells, are formed in these zones. Neural stem cells are capable of differentiating into the basic cell types of the nervous system. In addition, NSC may have neurogenic features and non-specific non-neurogenic functions aimed at maintaining the homeostasis of the brain. The microenvironment formed in neurogenic niches has importance maintaining populations of NSC and regulating differentiation into neural or glial cells via cell-to-cell interactions and microenvironmental signals. The vascular microenvironment in neurogenic niches are integrated by signaling molecules secreted from endothelial cells in the blood vessels of the brain or by direct contact with these cells. Accumulation of astrocytes in neurogenic niches if also of importance and leads to activation of neurogenesis. Dysregulation of neurogenesis contributes to the formation of neurological deficits observed in neurodegenerative diseases. Targeting regulation of neurogenesis could be the basis of new protocols of neuroregeneration.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014;8(4):
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A case of urination apraxia: phenomenology of the syndrome and differential diagnosis with other forms of post-stroke cortical dysuria

Domashenko, M.A., Shvarts P.G., Popov S.V., Borodulina I.V., Shvedkov V.V., Maximova M.Y., Kadykov A.S.

Abstract

We described the clinical features of urination apraxia as one of post-stroke cortical neurogenic disturbances of bladder function. Neurological and urological symptoms and the data of urodynamic and neurophysiological studies in a patient with urination apraxia resulting from the right-hemispheric lesion in the projection of cingulate gyrus are demonstrated. The differential diagnosis was carried out with the case of motor detrusor atony after stroke in the right temporal lobe and the insula, and with the case of imperative urination after stroke in the left frontal lobe in the projection of cingulate gyrus.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014;8(4):
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Neurological complications in acute leukemia in children

Shchugareva L.M., Iova A.S., Ivanova O.V., Boychenko E.G., Garbuzova I.A., Stancheva N.V., Bondarenko S.N., Khutornaya T.A., Zubarovskaya L.S.

Abstract

The success of treatment of acute leukemia in children is determined by the biological type of the disdorder, the volume of the tumor mass, extramedullary manifestations and toxic complications resulting from chemotherapy. Analysis of risk factors, clinical data and neuroimaging may help to clarify the cause of the pathology of the central nervous system and to select the optimal method of treatment.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014;8(4):
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