Современные возможности идентификации латентной стадии нейродегенеративного процесса

S. N. Illarioshkin1, A. G. Vlassenko2, E. Yu. Fedotova1
1ФГБУ «Научный центр неврологии» РАМН (Москва), Россия; 2Отделение радиологии медицинского факультета Вашингтонского университета (Сент-Луис, США), США

Аннотация


Характерной чертой нейродегенеративных заболеваний является существование многолетней латентной стадии, тогда как манифестация симптомов происходит после гибели 40–60% клеток в ранимых нейронных популяциях. Поэтому возможности нейропротекции максимальны именно в латентной стадии процесса. В статье представлены современные технологии пресимптоматической диагностики двух наиболее распространенных нейродегенеративных заболеваний – болезней Альцгеймера и Паркинсона. На основании собственных и литературных данных показано, что ведущими в выявлении лиц, имеющих высокий риск развития указанных заболеваний, являются методы нейровизуализации (идентификация бета-амилоида в головном мозге, феномена гиперэхогенности черной субстанции и др.) в комбинации с рядом нейрофизиологических и молекулярно-патобиохимических тестов. Валидация предлагаемых биомаркеров и их интеграция в единые диагностические скрининговые алгоритмы является на сегодня одним из наиболее актуальных разделов неврологии.

Ключевые слова

нейродегенеративные заболевания; болезнь Альцгеймера; болезнь Паркинсона; латентная стадия; биомаркеры; популяционный скрининг

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Литература

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