Neurospecific peptides in the assessment of brain damage in patients with atherothrombotic stroke

Cover Page

Cite item

Full Text


Assessment of neurospecific peptides provide quantitative information about the severity of ischemic cell damage. We studied 26 patients with atherothrombotic stroke. Control group comprised 15 healthy volunteers. Each patient underwent neurological examination and CT or MRI of the brain on admission. Patients with documented or clinical evidence of nervous system tumor, brain infarction, hemorrhage, head trauma, or central nervous system infection within 3 months before admission were excluded from this study. Stroke severity was rated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. S100 and NSE assays were performed using a radioimmunoassay technique. S100 and NSE levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. CSF and serum S100 and NSE levels were elevated in patients with atherothrombotic stroke compared with the control group. Elevation of S100 and NSE levels in CSF and serum after ischemic stroke may be a result of combined leakage out of necrotic cells and passage through an impaired brain-blood barrier, indicating severe ischemic cell injury.


About the authors

Marina Yu. Maximova

Research Center of Neurology

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7682-6672

D. Sci (Med,), Professor, Head, 2nd Neurology department, Research Center of Neurology

Russian Federation, Moscow

V. G. Ionova

Research Center of Neurology

Russian Federation, Moscow

E. N. Syskina

Moscow State Medical-Stomatologic University

Russian Federation, Moscow

Аlla A. Shabalina

Research Center of Neurology

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9604-7775

D. Sci. (Med.), leading researcher, Head, Laboratory of hemorheology, hemostasis and pharmacokinetics (with clinical laboratory diagnostics)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Marina V. Kostyreva

Research Center of Neurology

Russian Federation, Moscow

O. A. Sinektutova

Moscow State Medical-Stomatologic University

Author for correspondence.
Russian Federation, Moscow


  1. Березин В.А., Велик Я.В. Специфические белки нервной ткани. Киев: Наукова думка, 1990: 264.
  2. Крыжановский Г.Н. Детерминантные структуры в патологии нерв ной системы. М.: Медицина, 1980: 360.
  3. Barone F.C., Clerk R.K., Price W.J. et al. Neuron-specific enolase increases in cerebral and systemic circulation following focal ischemia. Brain Res. 1993; 1: 71–72.
  4. Bonhomme V., Hans P. et al. Neuron-specific enolase as a marker of in vitro neuronal damage Part III. Investigation of the astrocyte pro — tective effect against kainate-induced neurotoxicity. J. Neurosurg. Anesthesiol. 1993; 2: 9–22.
  5. Burmeister M., Kim S. et al. A map of the distal region of the long arm of human chromosome 21 constructed by radiation hybrid mapping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genomics 1991; 9: 19–30.
  6. Chen S.-H., Giblett E.R. Enolase: human tissue distribution and evi dence for three differentloci. Arm. hum. Genet. 1976; 39: 277–280.
  7. Cicero T.J., Cowan W.M. et al. The cellular localization of the two brain specific proteins, S100 and 14-3-2. Brain Res. 1970; 18: 25–34.
  8. Cocchia D. Immunocytochemical localization of the S100 protein in the central nervous system of adult rat. Neurosci. Lett. 1979; 13 (suppl. 3): 158.
  9. Eng L.F, Ghirnikar R.S., Lee Y.L. Glial fibrillary acidic protein: GFAP-thirty-one years (1969–2000). Neurochem. Res. 2000; 25 (9–10): 1439–1451.
  10. Grasso A., Roda G. et al. Preparation and properties of the brain specific protein 14-3-2. Brain Res. 1977; 124: 497–507.
  11. Haglid K.G., Hamberger A. et al. Cellular and subcellular distribution of the SI00 in rabbit and rat central nervous system. J. Neurosci. Res. 1976; 2: 175.
  12. Hansson H.A., Hyden H., Ronnback L. Localization of S100 protein in isolated nerve cells by immunoelectron microscopy. Brain Res. 1975; 93: 123.
  13. Higashida H., Sano M., Kato K. Forskolin induction of S100 protein in glioma and hybrid cells. J. cell. Physiol. 1985; 122: 39–44.
  14. Hill M.D., Jackowski G., Bayer N., Lawrence M., Jaeschke R. Biochemical markers in acute ischemic stroke. CMAJ Can. Med. Assoc. J. 2000; 162: 1139–1140.
  15. Hyden H., McEwen H. A glial protein specific for the nervous system. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 1966; 55: 354–358.
  16. Isobe Т., Окиуата Т. The amino acid sequence of S100 protein (PAP-IB protein) and its relation to calcium-binding proteins. Europ. J. Biochem. 1978; 89: 379–388.
  17. Jankovic B.D. Neural tissue hypersensitivity in psychiatric disorders with immunologic features. J. Immunol. 1985; 135 (2): 8536–8575.
  18. Kato K., Nakajiima Т., Ishiguro Y. Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for SI00 protein: determination in human cerebrospinal fluid. Biomed. Res. 1982; 3: 24–28.
  19. Kato K., Umeda Y. et al. Use of antibody Fab-fragments to remove interference by rheumatoid factors with the enzyme-linked sandwich immunoassay. FEBS Lett. 1979; 102: 253–256.
  20. Laskowitz D.T., Blessing R., Floyd J. et al. Panel of biomarkers predicts stroke. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2005; 1053: 30.
  21. Lynch J.R., Blessing R., White W.D et al. Novel diagnostic test for acute stroke. Stroke 2004; 35: 57–63.
  22. Marangos P.J., Schmechel D. et al. Measurement of neuronal and non-neuronal enolase of rat, monkey and human tissues. J. Neuro — chem. 1979; 33: 319–329.
  23. Martin B.M., Marangos P.J. et al. Structural studies of human neuron- specific enolase. Fed. Proc. ASBC Abstr. 1986; 45: 2146.
  24. Mecocci P., Parnetti L. et al. Serum anti-GFAP and anti-SlOO autoan tibodies in brain aging, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. J. Neuroimmunol. 1995; 57: 165–170.
  25. Michetti F., Massaro A., Russo G. The S100 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid as a possible index of cell injury in the nervous system. J. Neurol. Sci. 1980; 44: 259–263.
  26. Marcovina S.M., Crea F., Davignon J. et al. Biochemical and bioimaging markers for risk assessment and diagnosis in major cardiovascular diseases: a road to integration of complementary diagnostic tools. J. Int. Med. 2007; 261: 214–234.
  27. Mokuno K., Kato K. et al. Neuron-specific enolase and S100 protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with various neurological disor — ders. J. neurol. Sci. 1983; 60: 434–454.
  28. Montaner J., Delgado P., Purroy F. et al. Biochemical diagnosis of acute stroke using a panel of plasma biomarkers. Cerebrovasc. Dis. 2005; 19: 47.
  29. Moore B.W., McGregor D. Chromatographic and electrophoretic frac tionation of soluble proteins of brain and liver. J. biol. Chem. 1965; 133: 1647–1653.
  30. Reynolds M.A., Kirchick H.J., Dahlen J.R. et al. Early biomarkers of stroke. Clin Chem. 2003; 49: 1733–1739.
  31. Ridker P.M., Brown N.J., Vaughan D.E. et al. Established and emerging plasma biomarkers in the prediction of first atherothrombotic events. Circulation 2004; 109: IV–6.
  32. Takahashi M., Chamczuk A., Hong Y., Jackowski G. Rapid and sensitive immunoassay for the measurement of serum S100B using isoform- specific monoclonal antibody. Clin Chem. 1999; 45: 1307–1311.
  33. Vasan R.S. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: molecular basis and practical considerations. Circulation 2006; 113: 2335–2362.
  34. Wunderlich M.T., Ebert A.D., Kratz T. et al. The early neurobehavioral outcome after stroke is related to the release of neurobiochemical markers of brain damage. Stroke 1999; 30: 1190–1195.

Supplementary files

Supplementary Files

Copyright (c) 2011 Maximova M.Y., Ionova V.G., Syskina E.N., Shabalina A.A., Kostyreva M.V., Sinektutova O.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: серия ПИ № ФС 77-83204 от 12.05.2022.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies