Vol 5, No 3 (2011)

Original articles

Neurospecific peptides in the assessment of brain damage in patients with atherothrombotic stroke

Maximova M.Y., Ionova V.G., Syskina E.N., Shabalina A.A., Kostyreva M.V., Sinektutova O.A.

Abstract

Assessment of neurospecific peptides provide quantitative information about the severity of ischemic cell damage. We studied 26 patients with atherothrombotic stroke. Control group comprised 15 healthy volunteers. Each patient underwent neurological examination and CT or MRI of the brain on admission. Patients with documented or clinical evidence of nervous system tumor, brain infarction, hemorrhage, head trauma, or central nervous system infection within 3 months before admission were excluded from this study. Stroke severity was rated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. S100 and NSE assays were performed using a radioimmunoassay technique. S100 and NSE levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. CSF and serum S100 and NSE levels were elevated in patients with atherothrombotic stroke compared with the control group. Elevation of S100 and NSE levels in CSF and serum after ischemic stroke may be a result of combined leakage out of necrotic cells and passage through an impaired brain-blood barrier, indicating severe ischemic cell injury.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(3):
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Functional MRI study: passive motor paradigm in the assessment of sensorimotor system

Dobrynina L.A., Kremneva E.I., Konovalov R.N., Kadykov A.S.

Abstract

The fMRI study of 7 healthy volunteers was performed to evaluate the neuron networks of sensorimotor system during active and passive movements of the left and right index fingers. While performing all the tasks, the predominant activation of primary sensorimotor, premotor, supplementary motor areas, secondary sensory zones were shown on the contralateral side, as well as ipsilateral cerebellar activation. It was demonstrated that brain activation areas in both types of paradigm were corresponding, as well as the activation clusters size, amplitude and voxel coordinates, with the maximum values in the primary motor and sensory cortex. These results allow recommending the paradigm of passive index finger movements in given rate for the evaluation of sensorimotor system in patients with movement disorders.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(3):
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Effect of Lokomat trainings on the severity of gait disorders in patients after stroke

Klochkov A.S., Telenkov A.A., Chernikova L.A.

Abstract

Stroke is the one of the major causes of long-term disability. More than 50% of post-stroke patients have motor disorders of various severity. In acute and subacute stage of stroke, in the presence of motor disorders, abnormal synergies, known as Wernicke-Mann posture, are developing rapidly, significantly decreasing the quality of walking. In this article the effect of robotic therapy with the «Lokomat» system on the severity of pathological synergies in 125 post-stroke patients is described. Clinical scales and video analysis motion capture system were used for the assessment of clinical and biomechanical parameters of walking.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(3):
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Diagnostic significance of déjà vu phenomenon in clinical presentation of the brain tumors

Vlasov P.N., Chervyakov A.V., Urakov S.V., Lukshina A.A.

Abstract

The incidence of brain tumors (BT) in Russia is 7.5 per 100000.  Déjà vu (French) (DV) phenomenon may present as the one of the BT symptom. DV (French «already seen») is a mental disorder associated with the perception of reality, when an unknown, completely new situation seems to be familiar and already withnessed by the patient. Aim: to determine the characteristics and prevalence of DV in patients with BT. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 197 subjects (mean age 27.1±13.2 years; 47% men). First subgroup included 139 healthy subjects, 2nd subgroup consisted of 58 patients with BT, that were selected from 1772 patients with BT and seizures. All subjects completed special questionnaire to identify various characteristics of the DV (frequency, duration, emotional background), Cambridge depersonalization questionnaire; video-EEG study was performed. We used specific statistical methods and programs for analysis (confidence intervals calculation, Mann- Whitney test, etc.) The results were considered significant with p≤0.05)). Results: DV was manifested in 97% of healthy subjects. DV occured in 3.3% patients with BT and epileptic seizures. The phenomenon was seen more frequently in astrocytomas (50%, p=0.002) of right (72%, p=0.0001) temporal lobe and was associated with generalized seizures (54%) and olfactory hallucinations (24%). Patients with BT had significant differences in the characteristics of DV compared to the healthy subjects: the frequency of DV up to several times per day (Z=5.58; p=0.000001); duration – some minutes (Z=-2.78; p=0.004); DV is associated with negative emotions (Z=-2.35; p=0.02) and fear (Z=3.81; p=0.00002). Conclusions: The key to diagnosis is not only the fact of DV experience, but also the changes its characteristics (increased frequency and duration, etc.).

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(3):
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Laser-induced autofluorescence for assessment of methabolism and hemodynamic characteristics of the brain

Salmina A.B., Salmin V.V., Frolova O.V., Laletin D.I., Fursov M.A., Skomorokha D.P., Fursov A.A., Kondrashov M.A., Medvedeva N.N., Malinovskaya N.A., Mantorova N.S.

Abstract

The paper contains results of the investigation of the laser-induced fluorescence detection method for the assessment of brain metabolism in situ through the dura mater. Models of anoxia and acute brain ischemia were used for the evaluation of reliability of the method utilizing registration of reduced tissue pyridine nucleotides fluorescence, as well as for the assessment of the viability index, based on the conversion of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. Some pathobiochemical mechanisms of alterations in the pool of pyridine nucleotides in anoxia and ischemia were analyzed.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(3):
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Systemic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in patient with tuberculosis and AIDS with clinical presentation of acute polyradiculoneuropathy

Savin A.A., Batyrov F.A., Parkhomenko Y.G., Tyshkevich O.A., Tyshkevich I.M., Mozgaleva N.V., Maltsev R.V., Skopin M.S., Savin L.A., Hohlov Y.K.

Abstract

A rare case of systemic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that clinically manifested with acute polyradiculoneuropathy is described in the article. The patient with tuberculosis and AIDS was admitted to the hospital with bilateral paresis of facial nerves. Bulbar palsy, proximal flaccid paresis and respiratory disorders developed later. On autopsy large B-cell multifocal lymphoma was found, which affected central and peripheral nervous systems, heart, adrenals and stomach.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(3):
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Brain-computer interface as a novel tool of neurorehabilitation

Mokienko O.A., Chernikova L.A., Frolov A.A.

Abstract

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are invasive or non-invasive technologies allowing brain signals to be translated into commands of the external devices. Nowadays this technology is actively developing for the use in rehabilitation of patients with neurological diseases. Such interfaces can serve as a means of interaction with the outside world for patients with the «lockedin » syndrome. Using BCI patients with movement disorders could control robotic prostheses, wheelchairs and other external technical devices. Interfaces with biofeedback can facilitate the reorganization of the damaged cortex. Patients with neurological disorders were found to be able to use brain-computer interface. Nevertheless, it is necessary to perform larger controlled clinical studies for the evaluation of BCI effectiveness in neurorehabilitation.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(3):
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The use of structural and functional neuroimaging for the evaluation of motor rehabilitation in patients with ischemic stroke

Dobrynina L.A.

Abstract

We briefly review the methods of structural and functional neuroimaging use for the evaluation of motor rehabilitation after ischemic stroke. The results of studies for functional adaptive changes in stroke patients with different severity of corticospinal tract damage, various approaches to evaluation of rehabilitation prognosis and development of rehabilitation strategies designed to reduce impairment are discussed.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(3):
views

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