Vol 3, No 3 (2009)

Original articles

Clinico-epidemiological studies a perspective direction for investigation of cerebrovascular disorders

Suslina Z.A., Varakin Y.Y.

Abstract

Analysis of data from 7 population stroke registries, conducted in Russia in different years under similar programs elaborated by the Research Center of Neurology RAMS, has been performed. Discussed are factors influencing the breadth and term of hospitalization of patients seeking for emergency aid. Main parameters characterizing the effectiveness of the regional care system for stroke patients are proposed, and diagnostic potential of clinical and neuroimaging methods for determining stroke character are analyzed. It was shown that relaying only on clinical data, even combined with any instrumental and laboratory methods, except for CT/MRI, leads to substantial underestimation of the frequency of cerebral hemorrhage.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2009;3(3):
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Epidemiology of epilepsies in the Smolensk region. EEG-characteristics of patients with different forms of epilepsies

Maslova N.N., Egorova N.V.

Abstract

To increase efficiency of diagnostics and treatment of epilepsies epidemiology of epilepsies in the Smolensk region has been studied. Prevalence of epilepsy was 1.6:1000 in a children population and 0.9:1000 in an adult population. Determined are antiepileptic drugs that are predominantly prescribed, theirdozes, as well as types and causes of pharmacological resistance.
Dynamic EEG-examination allowed to define a number of neurophysiological features in different forms of epilepsies.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2009;3(3):
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Clinico-diagnostic assessment of the severity of degenerative damage of the lumbosacral spine

Konovalov N.A., Shevelev I.N., Kornienko V.N., Nazarenko A.G.

Abstract

A novel scale for objective assessment of the severity of degenerative damage of the lumbosacral spine has been elaborated. For the period from 2002 to 2007, 292 patients with this condition were operated on at the Department of Spinal Surgery, N.N. Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery RAMS. With the help of the scale under discussion, analysis was performed in patients with disk herniation of the lumbosacral spine (194 patients), vertebral canal stenosis (57), spondylolisthesis (23), and combined degenerative damage (18). A qualification scheme for the lumbosacral spine degenerative damage, based on the developed multidimensional assessment scale, has been proposed.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2009;3(3):
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Study of the effectiveness of avonex in multiple sclerosis (1-year treatment)

Zavalishin I.A., Peresedova A.V., Stoida N.I., Askarova L.S., Zakharova M.N., Adarcheva L.S., Niyazbekova A.S., Trifonova O.V., Rebrova O.Y., Eliseeva D.D.

Abstract

In the paper, the results of 1-year treatment with avonex, a new immunomodulator from the group of interferons b, in 34 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis have been reported. In the treated patients it was shown significant decrease of the activity of the pathological process, which was evidenced by reduction of the severity of exacerbations and the relapse rate. The decrease of disability of patients with multiple sclerosis (by EDSS score) was revealed. In general, one can notice good tolerability of avonex.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2009;3(3):
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Use of cortical electrodes in solving visual prosthesis problems

Baziyan B.K., Ivanova M.E., Gordeev S.A., Ortmann V.V.

Abstract

There are two main approaches to visual function prosthesis in blind patients with the use of «brain-computer» interfaces – on the basis of either retinal or cortical stimulation by implanted electrodes. The most complex in visual prosthesis is creation of the specific part of the interface that directly contacts with the tissues. In the paper discussed are questions of biocompatibility of microelectrode arrays and behavioral effects on animals (cats) for evaluating functionality of the bioprosthetic device and its ability to induce phosphenes (visual sensations without light). Presented are new experimental methods and obtained results that allowed to determine phospheneinducing parameters of brain cortex electric stimulation in cats. Special attention is focused on description of the microelectrode array properties necessary for safe application in humans during the long time span, which is essential in cortical visual prosthesis.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2009;3(3):
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The robotic systems in neurorehabilitation

Chernikova L.A.

Abstract

Among the newest technologies in rehabilitation of post-stroke patients a special place belongs to the robot-therapy, which, compared with other technologies, to a greater degree embodies main principles of the modern theory of motor learning. In the review, the up-to-date condition of research on application of the robot-therapy in rehabilitation of post-stroke patients is analyzed. Discussed are advantages of the use of this new technology related to wide opportunities of modeling of training parameters, continuous computer analysis and control of patient’s voluntary participation, as well as to opportunity of carrying out long trainings with high repeatability of movements close to a physiological pattern. The prospects of development of the robotic systems in neurorehabilitation are considered.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2009;3(3):
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Возможности оптимизации фармакотерапии эпилепсии

Носкова Т.Ю.

Abstract

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Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2009;3(3):
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Metabolic syndrome and cerebrovascular disorders

Tanashyan M.M., Orlov S.V., Medvedev R.B., Lagoda O.V., Omelchenko N.G., Glotova N.A.

Abstract

A combination of a number of risk factors, known as metabolic syndrome (MS), leads to fast progression of vascular diseases and the development of severe complications. Earlier we showed that abnormalities of the system of hemorheology and hemostasis accompanying MS played a significant role in the development of ischemic stroke. In this report we present three clinical cases of combination of MS with various forms of ischemic cerebrovascular pathology, including description of a patient who underwent surgical treatment because of a severe stenotic process in brachiocephal arteries. Shown is the effect of MS on different pathogenic constituents of vascular disorders, including the system of hemorheology and hemostasis. The necessity for complex therapy of main manifestations of MS in acute and chronic cerebrovascular disorders is grounded.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2009;3(3):
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