Vol 9, No 4 (2015)

Original articles

State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques

Piradov M.A., Tanashyan M.M., Krotenkova M.V., Bryukhov V.V., Kremneva E.I., Konovalov R.N.

Abstract

Modern high-field MRI and multispiral CT machines enable not only exploring structural changes in the central nervous system (CNS) but also evaluating cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic processes, and functional status of various brain regions. In this article, we review state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, functional MRI, and MRI morphometry.The article provides a brief description of the physical principles of these techniques as well as their application in research and clinical practice.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2015;9(4):
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A new approach for stroke prevention in Russia

Feigin V.L., Varakin Y.Y., Kravchenko M.A., Piradov M.A., Tanashayan M.M., Gnedovskaya E.V., Stakhovskaya L.V., Shamalov N.A., Krishnamurthi R.-., Bhattacharjee R.-., Parmar P.-., Hussein T.-., Barker-Collo S.-.

Abstract

The growing burden of stroke in Russia, along with the increasing cost of healthcare calls for new, more effective strategies for stroke prevention. These strategies should include increasing awareness of stroke symptoms, awareness of risk factors, and provision of easily available information on means of modifying risk factors. The Stroke Riskometer App is exactly such a tool, available in Russian, for adult individuals to calculate their risk of stroke over the next 5 and 10 years and identify their individual stroke risk factors and linking them to possible means of modifying these risk factors. The use of this App could reduce the risk of stroke for individuals in the Russian population and contribute to significant reduction in stroke burden in Russia
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2015;9(4):
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A comparative clinical and neuroimaging study of venous and arterial strokes

Mashin V.V., Belova L.A., Moiseev M.Y., Proshin A.N.

Abstract

Eighty four patients with clinical signs of acute cerebrovascular disease were examined. According to MRI, 20 patients were diagnosed with venous infarction, and 64 patients were diagnosed with arterial infarction. Venous strokes developed more frequently in patients at a relatively young age and in females. The clinical picture of venous stroke is characterized by subacute and slow development of clinical manifestations; prevalence of cerebral symptoms over focal symptoms; symptoms indicative of cerebral venous discirculation; a tendency towards relatively rapid regression of cerebral symptoms. According to MRI, the localization of infarction in venous stroke does not coincide with territories of blood supply to the main intracranial arteries; the form of foci is irregular, and their contours are rough and indistinct; signs of cerebral venous discirculation, intracranial venous stasis, and vasogenic edema are visualized.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2015;9(4):
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Navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in post-stroke rehabilitation: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study

Chervyakov A.V., Poydasheva A.G., Nazarova M.А., Gnezditsky V.V., Suponeva N.A., Chernikova L.A., Piradov M.A.

Abstract

Navigated rTMS is characterized by a great accuracy of localizing the stimulated area, which opens up new prospects for neuroplasticity modulation. We conducted an interventional randomized double-blind sham-controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of navigated rTMS in post-stroke rehabilitation. We found that low-frequency stimulation reliably reduces severity of motor deficit and increases the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living. High-frequency stimulation reduces spasticity (Ashworth Scale) and severity of central post-stroke pain syndrome. Navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation effectively supplements the conventional rehabilitation of poststroke patients. Compared to routine TMS, the use of navigated rTMS enables effective control of the neuroplastic processes and provides new opportunities in development of personalized neurorehabilitation programs.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2015;9(4):
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The range of neurological syndromes associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies

Krasnov M.Y., Pavlov E.V., Ershova M.V., Timerbaeva S.L., Illarioshkin S.N.

Abstract

Neurological syndromes caused by production of antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) are a relatively new area of modern clinical neurology, which is of great theoretical and practical interest. High titer of identified antibodies is a not always specific, but highly sensitive, marker for autoimmune CNS disorders. The authors present their own clinical observations and an analysis of the literature on a wide phenotypic range of GAD65-associated pathologies.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2015;9(4):
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Flexible endoscopy in neurosurgery

Gushcha A.O., Semenov M.S., Kashcheev A.A., Arestov S.O., Lepsveridze L.T.

Abstract

Endoscopic neurosurgery is a new and extremely promising area in surgical treatment of nervous system diseases. The advantages of the technique are associated with decreased severity of a surgical trauma due to a smaller approach, but with the preserved amount of performed manipulations. The article presents the first results of application of flexible endoscopy in the surgical treatment of diseases of the brain and spinal cord. A high efficacy of this high-tech approach and a significantly lower rate of complications compared to open surgery are demonstrated.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2015;9(4):
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Endogenous retrovirus: from fundamental studies to etiotropic therapy of multiple sclerosis

Zakharova M.N., Logunov D.Y., Kochergin I.A., Bakulin I.S.

Abstract

Retroviruses are a single-stranded RNA viruses that introduce their genes into host cells genome. Genes of retroviruses compose 9.3% of human genome. These genes may influence human genome activity by changing its structure and stability, introducing regulatory elements and expression of retroviral genes. Recently role of endogen retroviruses in human disease is studied. This article presents an overview of the role of retroviruses in the development of multiple sclerosis and potential approaches to etiotropic therapy.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2015;9(4):
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Modern tendencies in the development of the patch-clamp technique: new opportunities for neuropharmacology and neurobiology

Shuvaev A.N., Salmin V.V., Kuvacheva N.V., Pozhilenkova E.A., Salmina A.B.

Abstract

The patch-clamp (PC) technique is the gold standard in studying processes that occur on the membranes of excitable cells, both in the physiological condition and in pathology. However, gaining this unique information is associated with certain difficulties. The technique is very labor intensive and requires highly qualified specialists and expensive equipment, which greatly limits its introduction into routine practice of a neurobiological laboratory. This article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of PC as well as tendencies in improvement of the technique and its contribution to the development of neuropharmacology and neurobiology.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2015;9(4):
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A genome editing technology and capabilities of its application in cellular neurobiology

Vetchinova A.S., Konovalova E.V., Lunev E.A., Illarioshkin S.N.

Abstract

A number of fundamental breakthroughs in cellular and molecular biology provided the basis for several modern sophisticated approaches to modeling of human neurological (primarily neurodegenerative) diseases. In particular, targeted genome editing by artificial nuclease systems (CRISPR/CAS9, etc.) enables a highly specific correction of genetic defects at the cellular level. An especially promising area is application of the genome editing technology in specialized neurons and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of patients with inherited forms of neurodegeneration by cell reprogramming. The article provides a brief analysis of programmable nuclease systems and describes mechanisms of their activity as well as advantages, disadvantages, and capabilities of their applications in modeling and correction of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors generalize their own experience in cellular modeling of the PARK2 type of Parkinson’s disease on the culture of dopaminergic neurons differentiated from iPSCs. The article provides preliminary data related to the capability of editing the cellular genome at mutant sites PARK2.
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2015;9(4):
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