Vol 5, No 1 (2011)

Original articles

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

Glebov M.V., Maximova M.Y., Domashenko M.A., Bryukhov V.V.

Abstract

The problem of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) still stays in the focus of discussion due to the difficulties in diagnostics and treatment as a result of the small incidence and the lack of specific symptoms. Currently there are not enough publications in the field of CVT. The article discusses issues of epidemiology, clinical signs, instrumental diagnostics and the treatment of CVT.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(1):
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Single and multiple cerebral infarctions caused by atherosclerosis: morphology and pathogenesis

Evdokimenko A.N., Gulevskaja T.S.

Abstract

In 139 cases of cerebral infarctions, caused by atherosclerosis, macro- and microscopic investigation of brain and its vascular system as well as heart examination were conducted. Infarctions were located in the anterior circulation in 68 cases, in the posterior circulation – in 36 cases, in both the anterior and posterior circulations – in 34 cases. Single extensive, large or medium cerebral infarction was found in 45 cases. In 93 cases there were multiple infarcts, located in the vertebrobasilar, carotid or both arterial territories. Infarctions in these cases were mainly small and medium. Number of cases with single and multiple infarcts in the anterior circulation were nearly the same, while infarcts in the posterior circulation were predominantly multiple. Main causes of either single or multiple infarctions in anterior circulation were obstructive atherothrombosis and cardiogenic thromboembolism, infarctions in posterior circulation were evoked by tandem atherostenosis and obstructive atherothrombosis of the brain arteries. It has been found that multiple infarctions within the one arterial territory mainly have the same mechanism of their occurrence. Infarctions of different subtypes were found more frequently when located in both the anterior and posterior circulations. The most frequent combination regardless of infarctions localization was combination of acute atherothrombotic infarct and old hemodynamic infarcts of smaller size.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(1):
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Morfological changes of the nervous system in alcoholic and diabetic polyneuro pathies

Odinak M.M., Gaykova O.N., Emelyanov A.Y., Barsukov I.N., Onishchenko L.S., Tretyakov E.V., Belyasnik A.S.

Abstract

We carried out studies on morphological changes of the central and peripheral nervous system resulted from exo- and endotoxic factors, exemplified by alcohol disease and diabetes. The cervical, thoracic and lumbar parts of the spinal cord, the spinal ganglia, sciatic nerve and shin muscles from 27 male individuals (15 with alcoholic polyneuroupathy and 12 with diabetic polyneuropathy) and 4 young man died from life-incompatible traumas were examined postmortem by histochemistry, light and electronic microscopy. Severe neuronal damage in the lumbar spinal region in diabetic polyneuroupathy and selective damage of the anterior horns in alcoholic polyneuroupathy were revealed. The incidence of neural atrophy was relatively equal in both forms, and muscle atrophy prevailed in patients with alcoholism.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(1):
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Using myographic biofeedback in rehabilitation of patient with neurological disease (review of literature and own results)

Sidyakina I.V., Ivanov V.V., Schapovalenko T.V.

Abstract

This article represents a review of literature concerning the efficiency of myographic biofeedback training in rehabilitation of movement disorders after stroke, brain and spinal injury, as well as after traumatic lesion of peripheral nerves or in case of tension type headache. We also present the results of our study of 46 patients with different pathologies of nervous system before and after the biofeedback training course. Indications for leading the sessions of bio-control and possibilities in optimisation of the method are discussed.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(1):
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Functional Magnefic Resonance Imaging

Kremneva E.I., Konovalov R.N., Krotenkova M.V.

Abstract

Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate the brain mapping field due to its relatively low invasiveness, absence of radiation exposure, and relatively wide availability. It measures the hemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain (BOLD-effect). During planning fMRI experiment it is important to take into account equipment (MRI scan, devices for the stimuli presentation), experimental design and post processing. The last one includes several important steps, such as realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing. Nowadays fMRI is widely used not only in research field, especially for cognitive studies, but in clinical practice. However investigator should always remember some limitations and controversies, especially in patients with various nosological forms. It is also important to draw many specialists in experiment and its interpretation — neuroradiologists, MR-physicists, clinicians, psychologists, etc. — while fMRI is multidisciplinary methodic.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(1):
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Cerebrovascular disorders in antiphospholipid syndrome

Kalashnikova L.A.

Abstract

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Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(1):
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Secondary brain injury in patients with intracranial hemorrhage

Petrikov S.S., Krylov V.V.

Abstract

The review is dedicated to the problem of secondary brain injury management in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Literature data on secondary ischemic factors impact on the cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygenation and metabolism was analized. Special attention was spared on the different methods of intensive care in secondary brain injury management.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(1):
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The course of the acute period of ischemic stroke after inravenous thrombolysis

Domashenko M.A., Maksimova M.Y., Loskutnikov M.A., Nikonov A.A., Bryukhov V.V.

Abstract

Intravenous (i.v.) thrombolytic therapy of acute ischemic stroke is highly effective in selected group of patients. The most common complications of systemic thrombolysis are intracerebral haematomas, allergic reactions and acute hypotension. The early reocclusion/rethrombosis of intracranial arteries also may influency the efficacy of thrombolysis. The clinical cases of allergic reactions, acute hypotension and early reocclusion in the first 24 hours after i.v. thrombolysis are described in the article. It is concluded that monitoring of neurological status and haemodynamic parameters during and 24 hours after i.v. thrombolysis are the important factors of good outcome.

 
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2011;5(1):
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